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In cell signaling, how is the flow of specific ions
Opening and closing of ligand-gated channels
Many signal transduction pathways use second messengers to:
transport a signal through the lipid bilayer portion of the plasma membrane.
relay a signal from the outside to the inside of the cell.
relay the message from the inside of the membrane throughout the cytoplasm.
amplify the message by phosphorylating proteins.
Which of the following can activate a protein by transferring a phosphate group to it?
Of the following, a receptor protein in a membrane that recognizes a chemical signal is most similar to
the active site of an enzyme in the cytoplasm that binds to a specific substrate.
RNA specifying the amino acids in a polypeptide.
genes making up a chromosome.
an enzyme with an optimal pH and temperature for activity.
What could happen to the target cells in an animal that lack receptors for local regulators?
They could compensate by receiving nutrients via an α factor.
They could develop normally in response to neurotransmitters instead.
They could divide but never reach full size.
They would not be able to multiply in response to growth factors from nearby cells.
This is an example of
What is being depicted in the image?
Amplification of the signal molecule
Enzymatic proteins inhibiting process of the signal transduction pathway
Kinase groups adding dimer groups to other enzymes
Diffusion of molecules within the cell due to the signaling molecule
Which letter represents the cell membrane?
Which letter represents the cell surface receptor protein?
Which letter represents the ligand?