AP Biology - Cell Signalling and Transduction
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35 QuestionsShow answers
  • Question 1
    60 seconds
    Q. A signal molecule that binds to a plasma-membrane protein is a
    answer choices
    ligand
    second messenger
    protein kinase
    receptor protein
  • Question 2
    60 seconds
    Q. What is a G protein?
    answer choices
    specific type of membrane-receptor protein
    protein on the cytoplasmic side of a membrane
    membrane-bound enzyme
    relay protein
  • Question 3
    60 seconds
    Q. What do second messengers do?
    answer choices
    transport a signal through the lipid bilayer
    relay a signal from the outside to the inside of the cell
    relay message from the inside of the mebrane throughout the cytoplasm
    dampen the message
  • Question 4
    60 seconds
    Q. Signal amplification is most often achieved by
    answer choices
    an enzyme cascade
    binding of multiple signals
    branching pathways
    action of adenylyl cyclase
  • Question 5
    60 seconds
    Q. What does a protein kinase do?
    answer choices
    removes phosphates
    transfers phosphates from ATP to proteins
    activates an enzyme
  • Question 6
    60 seconds
    Q. Which of the following is a chemical message that usually travels through the bloodstream to target cells?
    answer choices
    hormone
    local regulator
    endocrine cell
  • Question 7
    30 seconds
    Q.

    Which molecule typically serves as a communicator for cells?

    answer choices

    Carbohydrates

    Lipids

    Proteins

    Nucleic Acds

  • Question 8
    30 seconds
    Q.

    Most hormones are proteins. Which other molecule type can serve as hormone?

    answer choices

    Carbohydrates

    Lipids

    Nucleic Acids

  • Question 9
    30 seconds
    Q.

    This hormone acts to raise blood glucose levels.

    answer choices

    insulin

    melatonin

    glucagon

    somatostatin

  • Question 10
    30 seconds
    Q. What type of receptor would testosterone have?
    answer choices
    Intracellular
    Membrane
  • Question 11
    180 seconds
    Q. 1.  Each of the following numbered processes are involved in signal transduction pathways:  
     I.  Response
     
    II.  Amplification
     
     III.  Reception
     
    IV.  Transduction
    Which of the following represents the sequence of events in a typical signal transduction pathway?
    answer choices
    I, II, III, IV
    III, I, IV, II
    II, IV, I, III
    III, IV, II, I
  • Question 12
    180 seconds
    Q. When epinephrine binds to cardiac (heart) muscle cells, it speeds their contraction. When it binds to muscle cells of the small intestine, it inhibits their contraction. Which of the following best accounts for the fact that the same hormone can have different effects on muscle cells?
    answer choices
    Cardiac cells have more receptors for epinephrine than do intestinal cells
    Epinephrine circulates to the heart first and thus is in higher concentration around cardiac cells
    The two types of muscle cells have different signal transduction pathways for epinephrine and thus have different cellular responses
    Cardiac muscle is stronger than intestinal muscle and thus has a stronger response to epinephrine
  • Question 13
    60 seconds
    Q. Which of the following can activate a protein by transferring a phosphate group to it?
    answer choices
    cAMP
    G Protein
    protein kinase
    protein phosphatase
  • Question 14
    60 seconds
    Q. Which of the following can activate a protein by transferring a phosphate group to it?
    answer choices
    cAMP
    G Protein
    protein kinase
    protein phosphatase
  • Question 15
    180 seconds
    Q. The three stages of cell signalling are
    answer choices
    paracrine, local, and synaptic
    reception, transduction, and response
    transcription, translation, and folding
    alpha, beta, and gamma
  • Question 16
    30 seconds
    Q. What type of transmembrane receptor is being shown?
    answer choices
    G-protein receptor
    tyrosine kinase receptor
    gated ion channel
  • Question 17
    30 seconds
    Q. What is the name of the pathway that occurs when a signal is received and then converted into a cellular response?
    answer choices
    signal transduction
    biochemical
    catabolic
    anabolic
  • Question 18
    30 seconds
    Q. What is the name of the molecule used in signal transduction pathways that readily diffuse and broadcast signals quickly?
    answer choices
    secondary messengers
    ligand
    kinases
    phosphatases
  • Question 19
    30 seconds
    Q. Cell signaling that reaches the nucleus is likely to 
    answer choices
    regulate gene expression (turning genes on or off)
    surpress metabolism
  • Question 20
    30 seconds
    Q. Protein kinases activate other relay proteins by adding a(n) ____ to them.
    answer choices
    phosphate
    ATP molecule
    cAMP
    GTP
  • Question 21
    30 seconds
    Q. Kinases are de-activated when 
    answer choices
    phosphate is removed by a phosphatase
    GTP attaches to them
    ligand is released from the receptor
    apoptosis occurs
  • Question 22
    30 seconds
    Q. Osmosis is the movement of _____ across a membrane.
    answer choices
    food
    energy
    oxygen
    water
  • Question 23
    30 seconds
    Q. This picture represents what type of cell transport?
    answer choices
    endocytosis
    exocytosis
    osmosis
    passive transport
  • Question 24
    30 seconds
    Q. What type of transport is this?
    answer choices
    facilitated diffusion
    active transport
    diffusion
    osmosis
  • Question 25
    30 seconds
    Q. Which of the following is a type of long-distance signaling?
    answer choices
    Endocrine signaling
    Paracrine signaling
    Synaptic signaling
  • Question 26
    30 seconds
    Q. Which of the following types of signaling involves the secretion of hormones by cells?
    answer choices
    paracrine signaling
    endocrine signaling
    synaptic signaling
  • Question 27
    30 seconds
    Q. Which of the following involves signaling in the nervous system where electrical signals along nerve cells trigger the secretion of neurotransmitter molecules?
    answer choices
    endocrine signaling
    paracrine signaling
    synaptic signaling
  • Question 28
    30 seconds
    Q. A signaling molecule that specifically binds to another molecule is known as a(n)
    answer choices
    enzyme
    ligand
    receptor
    channel protein
  • Question 29
    30 seconds
    Q. Which of the following would be the fate of animal cells that lack receptors for local paracrine signaling molecules?
    answer choices
    They would be unable to respond to hormone signals in the bloodstream
    They would be unable to grow and divide in response to signals from nearby cells
    They would bind to locally secreted growth factors & intracellular pathways would be blocked
    They would grow and divide normally
  • Question 30
    30 seconds
    Q. What type of transmembrane receptor is being shown?
    answer choices
     tyrosine kinase receptor
    G-protein receptor
    gated ion channel
  • Question 31
    30 seconds
    Q. What is the name of the signaling molecule that triggers a transduction pathway?
    answer choices
    ligand
    GTP
    kinase
    phosphatase
  • Question 32
    30 seconds
    Q. The death signal inactivates ced-9 and triggers programmed cell death.  What is this called?
    answer choices
    apoptosis
    gated ligand channel
    cell communication
    G-protein reception
  • Question 33
    30 seconds
    Q. What type of transmembrane receptor is being shown?
    answer choices
    gated ion channel
    G-protein receptor
    tyrosine kinase receptor
  • Question 34
    30 seconds
    Q. Epinephrine (also known as adrenaline or adrenalin) is a hormone and a neurotransmitter. The model for the action of Epinephrine is shown below.
    Which of the following molecules act as a second messenger in the cascade by which epinephrine stimulates the activation of the enzyme glycogen phosphorylase?
    answer choices
    Adenosine
    Adenylyl cyclase
    Citric acid
    Cyclic AMP
  • Question 35
    30 seconds
    Q. The term steroid describes both hormones produced by the body and artificially produced medications that duplicate the action for the naturally occurring steroids. All of the following describe steroid hormones EXCEPT:
    answer choices
    A.  They bind with receptor proteins in the plasma membrane to trigger cellular responses.
    A.  They are derived from cholesterol and are lipid soluble.
    They serve as ligands in signal transduction pathways
    A.  They are exemplified by testosterone, estrogen and progesterone
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