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In animals, where are most components of the extracellular
a. smooth ER
b. the rough ER
c. in the extracellular layer itself
d. in the plasma membrane
Which of the following statements represents a fundamental difference between the fibers found in the extracellular layers of plants and those of animals?
a. Plant fibers resist compression forces; animal fibers resist pulling forces.
b. Animal fibers consist of proteins; plant fibers consist of
c. Plant extracellular fibers never move; animal fibers can slide past one another.
d. Cellulose microfibrils run parallel to one another; collagen
What does it mean to say that a signal is transduced?
The signaling molecule enters the cell directly and binds to a receptor inside.
The physical form of the signal changes between the outside of the cell and the inside.
The signal is amplified, such that even a single molecule evokes a large response.
The signal triggers a sequence of phosphorylation events inside the cell.
What characteristics do tight junctions bestow on tissues that use these adhesions to connect adjacent cells?
a. They allow communication between adjacent cells.
b. They provide strong connections to resist pulling forces.
c. They use the extracellular matrix to indirectly connect adjacent cells.
d. They form a watertight barrier between the cells.
Where does the citric acid cycle occur in eukaryotes?
a. in the cytosol
b. in the matrix of mitochondria
c. in the inner membrane of mitochondria
d. in the intermembrane space of mitochondria
What is the function of the reactions in a fermentation pathway?
a. to generate NADH from NAD , so electrons can be donated to the electron transport chain
b. to synthesize pyruvate from lactate
c. to generate NAD+ from NADH, so glycolysis can continue
d. to synthesize electron acceptors, so that cellular respiration can continue
True or False,
The CO2-reduction reactions of photosynthesis depend on the products of the light-capturing reactions.
In antenna complexes, how is energy transferred among the pigment molecules?
b. redox reactions
Why is chlorophyll green?
a. It absorbs all wavelengths in the visible spectrum.
b. It absorbs wavelengths only in the red portions of the spectrum (680 nm, 700 nm).
c. It absorbs wavelengths in only the blue and red parts of the
d. It absorbs wavelengths only in the blue part of the visible
Which of the following is not true of secreted proteins?
a. They are synthesized using ribosomes.
b. They enter the ER lumen during translation.
c. They contain a signal that directs them into the lysosome.
d. They are transported between organelles in membrane-bound vesicles.
a) Track a protein from the the inside of the cell to outside of the cell.
b) What is the name of this process?
c) How does it occur?
How does the signal hypothesis relate to the secretory pathway?
How does the secretory pathway relate to the Pulse Chase experiment?
Suppose that a particular cell-cell signaling molecule induces a cellular response without requiring signal transduction (i.e., no secondary messengers or phosphorylation cascades). Compared to the signal transduction pathways you learned about in the following chapter, how would an event like this affect
a) The types of responses that are possible:
a. What are the inputs and outputs of cell respiration?
b. Where does each step occur?
a. Draw out the ETC and label each complex with corresponding intermediates.
b. Identify where the concentration gradient, chemiosmosis, and oxidative phosphorylation takes place.
Where does substrate level phosphorylation occur?
Where does active transport occur in cell respiration?
a. Define oxidative phosphorylation.
b. Define substrate phosphorylation.
Draw out each portion of photosynthesis and explain the calvin cycle.
a. Where is the ETC?
b. What is the antenna complex?
c. What electron carriers are being used?
d. What is plastoquinone?
e. How does the light dependent reaction feed into the light independent reaction (dark reaction/Calvin Cycle)?
a. What is the structure and function of the different cell-cell interactions: tight junctions, desmosomes, and gap junctions?
b. Where can they be found?
Compare and contrast the ETC in the light reaction of photosynthesis and ETC of cell respiration.