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Which of the following formulas shows qualitative identity?
X is similar to Y
X = X
X ≠ X
X, therefore Y
Which of the following formulas shows numerical identity?
X ≠ X
X, therefore Y
X = X
X is similar to Y
Each week I go to Chipotle for a burrito. I order the same thing. How would I define the identity of the burrito I receive?
The exact same burrito
When discussing the core elements needed for a thing to be the thing that it is, we are referring to
When discussing the items that can be taken away from an object without making it a different thing, we are referring to
If I had a favorite hat that is my favorite because of the memories attached to it, my hat is said to have
I had a 20 dollar bill in my wallet. It was stolen and spent but the person who stole it later felt bad and replaced it with a different 20 dollar bill. I likely won’t notice because a 20 dollar bill has
Philosophy of mind is concerned with what?
The mind-body problem
Thoughts, feelings, desires, intentions, beliefs, and decisions are called what?
The Identity of Indiscernibles (Leibniz’ Law) tells us that
brain states are different from mental states because they are unique.
brain states and mental states are the exact same thing.
brain states differ from mental states when they are experienced by different people.
brain states and mental states are the same if they have the same and only the same properties.
What is the biggest issue with the Identity of Indiscernibles (Leibniz’ Law)?
No two brains are exactly alike.
Qualia shows us that mental states are different for each individual.
There is no correct way to experience something.
We have skipped over what happens inside the brain, as if it were a black box.
Which of the following is a real-world example of functionalism?
An unopened black box that we keep the inner workings of secret.
A diamond and cubic zirconium; they look the same but are actually different.
Electrical current going from an outlet to an appliance.
A mouse trap is something that catches or kills mice.
Most philosophers today believe which theory of the philosophy of mind?
Mind-Brain Identity Theory
Our natural view of determinism is known as what?
Which theory of free will requires us to create a gap in universal causality (our decisions or actions are truly not caused)?
Despite being subject to laws of nature, if our choices are made freely and rationally, what form of free will are we presenting?
Identify the term: a unified being connected to consciousness, awareness, agency.
Identify the term: the relation that a thing bears only to itself.
Identify the term: the relation between two things that have properties in common.
Identify the term: the relation of absolute sameness between a thing and itself.
Identify the term: the location of mental events, mental functions, mental properties, and consciousness.
Identify the term: private, conscious, subjective experiences of sensation or perception.
Identify the term: the ontological view that all reality can be shown to be material in nature.
Identify the term: the view that minds are one and the same thing as neurological processes in the brain.
mind-brain identity theory
Identify the term: the view that mental states are identified by what they do rather than what they are made of.
Identify the term: a being characterized by consciousness, rationality, and a moral sense.
Identify the term: sentience or awareness of internal or external existence.
Identify the term: an ontological reality composed of a multiplicity of things or different kinds of things and that this multiplicity cannot be reduced to one or two categories.
Identify the term: the ability to make choices that are either uncoerced, undetermined, or uncaused or only caused by agency of the human will.
Identify the term: the belief that every event, action, and decision results from causes external of the human will.
Identify the term: the belief that choices can be freely made according to human will.
Identify the term: the belief that free will and determinism are compatible.
Identify the term: the freedom to not only do what one wants to do, but to form one’s own meaning and essence.
Identify the term: the freedom to act contrary or irrationally to what is in one’s own best interests and the interests of society.
Mind-body interaction and the knowledge of other minds are problems for dualists because they raise questions concerning
how a purely spiritual thing known only through introspection can affect and be affected by a material thing.
whether one’s mind or soul can exist after other people or minds see that the body dies.
how a person can know what is going on in someone else’s mind without knowing if there are any physical things in the world at all.
whether the dualist’s belief in the existence of minds and bodies is based on observations.
If we say that thinking is a behavioral characteristic that can only be done by biological begins, then computers, since they are not biological, do not think. Functionalists would say it depends on
whether or not machines can calculate or predict as well as human beings can.
whether thinking is inherently linked to having biological characteristics.
whether computers can exhibit creative human thought.
whether thought is based on rational thought or random guesses.
Some argue that even if computers looked human and imitated emotions, it still would not be capable of thought because it was brought into existence and maintains existence by relying on something else (for computers, that is humans). However, what idea would disprove this argument?
Thinking is not learned or programmed and humans do it naturally.
Human emotional activity is not connected to rational thought.
Humans cannot imitate emotions as well as computers can.
Humans do not cause their own existence on depend on other sources of energy as well.
According to Skinner, being human means only that we behave in a way that we recognize as human. The fact that we think and act in predictable ways indicates that consciousness or thought should be understood as
the external or observable sign of mental activities.
observable behavior patterns.
the neural events in the brain.
the causes of behavior that are not caused by other behaviors.
According to hard behaviorism, it is misleading to talk of mental events because such things
are spiritual entities and cannot be described in physical terms.
are accessible only to the person speaking and not anyone else.
simply do not exist.
cannot be explained by the behaviorist other than in dualistic terms.
According to a behaviorist like Ryle, dualists like Descartes commit a category mistake when they explain the relation of the human body to the mind because
the pineal gland is physical and therefore cannot be a point of spiritual contact.
the behavior of a mind cannot be detected as easily as the behavior of the body.
unlike bodies, minds are not things at all.
the human body is a theoretical entity which the mind identifies through behavior.
Although some critics of material argue that materialists cannot account for emotions or social and legal relations (like being married), materialists would reply that emotions and social/legal problems are simply
bodily phenomena, behaviors, or physical arrangements.
physical manifestations of real spiritual (immaterial) events.
mental states that are correlated with brain states or behaviors (though not identical).
not explainable terms of metaphysics since they don’t actually exist.
According to mind-brain identity theory, mental events are electro-chemical events, meaning that a person has a mind means that
the person exhibits behaviors that indicate that the person is alive.
the person’s mind causes a complex and measurable pattern of neural activity.
the person has a complex brain and/or nervous system.
actual neuron firings in the brain demonstrate the presence of a consciousness.
Functionalists reject the premise that thinking is only limited to biological beings because mental events are characterized by
their ability to promote understanding and to explain how we intend certain meanings.
their behavioral output, not by how that output is produced.
their calculational or predictive speed, not their anatomical or biological features.
their immateriality, not their ability to facilitate inputs and outputs.
Critics of functionalism claim that computers cannot think because they do not understand the data, but functionalists state that human understanding and intentionality are
the mental or spiritual recognition of mechanical or neuro-physiological processes.
mental but not mechanical or neuro-physiological patterns or processes.
spiritual activities that are produced by mechanical or neuro-physiological patterns or processes.
certain patterns of mechanical or mechanical or neuro-physiological processes.
According to determinism, human choices and actions are like all other events in the universe because
they are determined by specific causes to occur in exactly the way they do.
they have causes that are ultimately outside of nature, like God or fate.
we never have any idea about what causes them.
there is really nothing that ultimately causes them, they just happen.
Determinism differs from predestination and fatalism because it explains human behavior in terms of
causes, not reasons.
actions, not choices.
natural events, not supernatural events.
the past, not the future.
According to hard determinism, we think we are free because
we do not know the causes of our actions so we assume our actions have no causes.
the causes of our actions are so complex that there really isn’t any cause for our actions.
the choices we make are themselves uncaused.
everything that exists naturally is causally determined.
Although hard determinists think everything is already caused and there is no free will, they argue we can still hold people accountable because we
may be unfair or unjust, but this is what society says we must do.
respect people’s freedom to act however they want.
can work to change their lives to be more useful and happy.
recognize that people’s passions and vices don’t overwhelm their ability to reason.
If behaviorists are right, and humans are products of their environment and conditioning, how can they be responsible for their actions?
It only seems that people are not free, they actually are.
Even though human nature is determined genetically, we can take responsibility for ourselves.
Holding someone accountable means reinforcing desirable behavior so help them act better in the future.
We can use determinism to recognize freedom and dignity to improve people.
According to compatibilists, even though all our actions are caused by someone, some of our acts can be called free because
they are caused by our choices.
a spiritual force causes us to choose those actions.
our choices are not determined.
choices form character or personality.
Compatibilists claim that certain actions are free when they are caused by
purely random, unpredictable, chance events.
the genetics and upbringing or social conditioning of a person.
the unconscious impulses or drives of a person.
the decision, choice, or character of the person doing the action.
Even though compatibilists acknowledge that our actions have a cause, they still maintain we are free because
the individual doing the act feels free.
nothing causes the individual to choose what he or she does.
so-called free acts are due to the person’s choice or decision to do them.
the individual’s acts could not have been predicted.
Hard determinists disagree with compatibilists because
though a free act might be because of choice, the choice itself was a result of causes.
actions that are uncaused cannot be predicted or controlled.
there is no such thing as an action that results from or is caused by a choice.
true freedom is simply accepting the fact that we are determined.
A true libertarian would propose that truly free actions are
best explained by who chooses to do the action.
spontaneous, chance, or random events uncaused by personality or choice.
caused by motions of sub-atomic particles.
actions that have specific causes, but we don’t know that those causes are.
A criticism of libertarian free will, where free human actions must be random, chance, unpredictable, uncaused events, is that
if an event happens randomly, it would be unpredictable.
we could not control and be held responsible for our actions.
when someone does an action freely, we cannot predict the consequences.
we must act morally and freely despite this.
Although libertarians argue that deliberating, acting spontaneously, and feeling guilt or remorse prove we are free, determinists disagree because such experiences are
illusions or ways of dealing with conflicting desires.
the products of choices.
justified because they are revealed mentally.
Which of the following theories provide a rational rather than causal explanation of freedom?
Hard and soft determinism and indeterminism.
Indeterminism, compatibilism, and soft determinism.
Compatibilism and libertarianism.
Agency, person, and existentialist theories.
Why do libertarians state that should assume we are free even if we cannot prove it?
Because if we are not free, we cannot really choose alternative ways of acting.
Because if we are free, we can choose to believe what we want.
Because our choices in acting are determined by how much information we have.
Because randomness and chance characterize nature.
Sartre claims that, instead of saying human beings are free, it would be more correct to say human beings are freedom, because to say that humans are free
describes human beings as lacking moral responsibility.
ignores the fact that humans are determined to act in certain ways.
implies that freedom is a characteristic found in determinate human essence.
condemns humans to labor under the burden of free choices.
According to Sartre, the claim that human existence precedes essence requires that there be no God, because if God exists then
humans are not free to choose the kind of beings they become and are responsible for.
the cause of evil in the world is due to humans.
existentialism is an explanation of human nature.
there is no limit on human actions or human nature.
For Sartre, whatever we do must be understood as a model or standard for all humanity to live up to because
the experience of absolute freedom makes us realize that nothing we do matters.
as we get older, we learn that our parents’ approval is based on their values.
since there is no human essence, our actions define what it means to be human.
unless we experience the anguish of being free, we cannot appreciate it.
“We are condemned to be free.” Sartre meant that
we should not ignore the fact that all cultures share the same moral values.
we cannot avoid making value choices for which we must take responsibility.
nothing that we do will ultimate make a difference.
whatever we do will be wrong.