Which was the most important factor in Ghana’s rise?
the development of agriculture
the gold-for-salt trade
Which best describes Timbuktu?
a farming village on the Niger River in West Africa
the city to which Muslims make the hajj
the ancient homeland of the people of Ghana
a center of Islamic learning in Africa
Which best describes Songhai under Askia Muhammad?
a powerful trading empire that stretched from the Atlantic Ocean across much of West Africa
a small kingdom on the Niger River that owed allegiance to Mali
an empire whose capital city of Kilwa was a center of Islamic culture and learning
a powerful empire that grew wealthy trading with the people of the Swahili coast
Which does not describe all three kingdoms of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai?
they grew powerful through trade
they ruled much of West Africa
they controlled the gold-for-salt exchange
they built large cities in the West African rain forest
Which best explains the increase in the African slave trade after the fifteenth century?
the arrival of the Portuguese on the coast of Benin
the arrival of Arab traders on the Swahili coast
the construction of Great Zimbabwe
the domestication of the camel
Which best explains the spread of culture along East Africa’s Swahili coast?
Islamic armies conquered East Africa and required Africans to convert to Islam
traders from the north brought Greco-Roman culture
African culture mingled with traditions carried by Arab traders
the people of Great Zimbabwe spread ancient African traditions
Which religion had a major influence on East African cultures after being brought there by foreign traders?
Which best describes the origins of the African slave trade?
the Portuguese were the first to capture Africans and sell them as slaves
African societies often enslaved people they conquered or captured in battle
Muslim traders brought slaves with them to Africa to exchange for salt and ivory
the slave trade began when Europeans began colonizing North and South America
Which is the best explanation of Great Zimbabwe's rise to power?
Zimbabwe was a highly productive agricultural society
fish from Zimbabwe were a staple food of East African people
Zimbabwe’s military was stronger than others in the region
Zimbabwe controlled the region's ivory and gold trade
Which is not a possible reason for the decline of Great Zimbabwe?
shifting trade routes
end of the slave trade
What key feature helped the Ottoman military defeat other armies in the region?
a powerful cavalry
highly disciplined janissaries
an enormous army
Which was a result of the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453?
the city became an Islamic capital
the Hagia Sophia was destroyed
Christians were banned from the city
the city became a Christian stronghold
Which best describes a result of the legal reforms of Süleyman, the Ottoman emperor?
unlimited religious freedom was created
all religious freedoms ended
religious freedom was allowed, with a tax for non-Muslims
there was little effect on religion in the Ottoman Empire
Which is not a reason for the conflict between the Ottoman Empire and the Safavid Empire?
the fall of Constantinople
control of Chaldiran
Which allowed Akbar to govern the many people of the Mughal Empire?
religious tolerance and inclusion
a tax on non-Muslims
a tax on non-Hindus