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Supporters of the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 believed that regulation of
business protected consumers.
trade helped large companies.
taxes assisted consumers.
services helped large companies.
“All charges made for any service rendered or to be rendered in the transportation of passengers or property. . . or for the receiving, delivering, storage, or handling of such property, shall be reasonable and just; and every unjust and unreasonable charge for such service is prohibited and declared to be unlawful.”
According to this quotation, what is against the law?
all charges for the transportation of people or handling of goods
services rendered for delivering, storage, or handling of property
unjust or unreasonable charges for transporting people or goods
unfair prices for the goods that are sold to consumers
What railroad practice did reformers call on governments to legislate in the late 1800s, with minimal success?
rate discrimination favoring shorter journeys
rebates to large companies
rebates to small companies
rate discrimination favoring smaller companies
What did the Supreme Court rule in the Munn v. Illinois case?
States can regulate railroads that operate interstate.
States can regulate grain storage fees in their states.
States cannot regulate large businesses at all.
States cannot regulate railroads that operate interstate.
What was the main reason the United States government intervened in the Great Railroad Strike of 1877?
The government took action to end the strike in response to public demands in support of the railroad companies.
The government sided with the labor unions and sent troops to protect railroad workers.
The government ended the strike for the purpose of returning thousands of people to work during a time of mass unemployment.
The government considered railroads to be critical to national security and ended the strike for chiefly economic reasons.
As a result of the Great Railroad Strike of 1877, railroad companies lost millions of dollars because
of property damage only.
of property damage and decreased worker productivity.
they had to pay employees for lost work hours.
they had to pay a fee to the government for helping to end the strike.
What is one specific way that living in a company town prevented workers from forming organized labor unions?
Workers paid the company for all of their needs, such as food and housing.
Company agents were constantly monitoring residents.
Everyone in the town worked for the same company.
Companies made everyone who lived in company towns sign an anti-union contract.
Which statement provides the most logical explanation of why union workers who had been blacklisted following the Pullman Strike found it almost impossible to find another job?
Blacklisted workers could be charged with criminal acts if they attempted to find other jobs.
The majority of blacklisted workers had been injured during the strike and were unable to work.
The majority of blacklisted workers had criminal records that disqualified them from most employers’ hiring criteria.
Blacklisted workers were viewed as troublesome, untrustworthy, and even dangerous by other employers.
What is the definition of a strike?
a union strategy involving work stoppage designed to put pressure on an employer
a union strategy in which workers stop buying an employer’s goods until the employer gives in to workers’ demands
negotiations by union leaders on behalf of a group of workers in an attempt to win better pay for workers
the refusal of union leaders to allow certain groups of people to join unions
National unions differed from local unions in that national unions
included workers from different industries.
did not support the eight-hour work day.
refused to use strikes as a way to achieve their goals.
excluded craft union members and skilled workers.
In comparison to Terence Powderly of the Knights of Labor, the American Federation of Labor’s Samuel Gompers
believed anyone should be allowed to join a union.
preferred negotiations rather than strikes.
often became involved in politics.
focused on issues important to all workers.
Samuel Gompers, the leader of the American Federation of Labor, was least likely to approve of
a workers’ march to protest low wages.
union support of a political party.
an increase in the number of union members.
a shorter work day, which meant less wages.
How did Carnegie’s early job with the railroads greatly contribute to his success in the steel business?
It taught him how to lay railroad tracks with steel.
The Pennsylvania Railroad Company was his best customer when he built his business.
The Pennsylvania Railroad Company paid him well enough so he eventually could invest in his own business.
It helped him predict that the demand for steel to build railroad tracks and bridges would grow.
How did the Bessemer process contribute to the development of Carnegie’s monopoly?
It allowed Carnegie to produce higher quality steel more quickly, which increased demand.
It made transportation of steel faster and more efficient, lowering Carnegie’s costs.
It allowed Carnegie to cut his cost of labor, increasing his profits.
It allowed Carnegie to replace coal as a fuel supply, cutting his costs.
Why was Carnegie Steel considered a vertical monopoly?
The company controlled every step of steel production, from raw materials to distribution.
The company controlled all the steel plants in the country.
The company became the only source of steel after competitors went out of business.
The company was able to produce more steel than any other steel company in the world.
Which business practice did Rockefeller repeatedly use that helped him succeed in building his oil monopoly?
In all his businesses, Rockefeller made sure that he controlled all aspects of production.
With every purchase of a refinery, Rockefeller would add new products to his business.
In all his businesses, Rockefeller made a profit and used it to expand or buy other businesses.
With every business Rockefeller bought, he would learn about it, sell it at a profit, and buy another business.
Why did the development of time zones make train schedules more reliable?
Time zones set the entire country to the same time.
Time zones measured time locally instead of country-wide.
Time zones made sure that each state was in only one zone.
Time zones created a standard of time that all trains followed.
Which best explains how railroad companies were able to standardize their timetables in 1883?
by combining into a single railway company
by working together voluntarily
by unionizing their labor forces
by complying with federal legislation
In the mid to late 1800s, the US government granted land to railroad companies to expand their networks. What is another way that railroad companies used the land?
They mined the land for coal and other natural resources.
They sold the land to farmers and ranchers.
They built factories along the rail lines.
They created land preservations in order to protect the environment.
Those who opposed the provisions of the Sherman Antitrust Act believed that success in business depended on
the survival of strong companies over weak ones.
government regulation and oversight.
large business owners working together.
rate controls and price fixing.
Why were so few violations of the Sherman Antitrust Act brought to court?
No businesses violated the law once it was put into place.
Court cases took too much time and cost too much money.
The Interstate Commerce Commission knew it wouldn’t win.
The law was too unpopular with the general public.
How did the Great Railroad Strike of 1877 affect the national economy?
The strike had a minor impact on the national economy because companies quickly hired new workers.
The strike had a major impact on the national economy because workers in other industries joined the strike.
The strike had a major impact on the national economy because it prevented trade and commerce.
The strike impacted the local economy but not the national economy.
What finally convinced the federal government to intervene in the Pullman Strike in 1894?
The strike caused George Pullman to lose money.
The government felt it was their responsibility to protect the workers.
The strike disrupted mail delivery.
The government was worried that people would stop using the rail system to travel.
Trade unions differed from labor unions in that trade unions were organized by
When the Lowell Mill Girls went on strike in 1836, which tactic did the mill owners use to break the strike?
They fired all the employees.
They engaged in negotiations with the employees.
They hired a new set of employees.
They refused to negotiate with the employees.
What is a trust?
a large company that consists of two merged businesses
multiple businesses that combine and operate in one state
a business that buys another business
a large company or combined businesses that control a specific market
How did John D. Rockefeller horizontally integrate his monopoly in 1880?
He purchased iron mines around the country to add to his business.
He created a trust that controlled ninety percent of the nation's oil refineries.
He created a trust that controlled oil wells, refineries, and distribution networks.
He purchased coal plants around the country to add to his business.
Which best describes the impact of railroad expansion on the steel industry?
It did not affect the demand for steel at all.
It decreased the demand for steel since railroad tracks were built from wood.
It increased the demand for steel since steel was used to make railcars and tracks.
It decreased the demand for steel since the railroad was generally not used to transport steel.