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The diagram below shows the percentage similarity in the DNA sequences of a chimpanzee and five closely related primate species.
Which primate species is most closely related to the chimpanzee?
Old world monkey
Natural selection is a process that results in evolution. Which one of the following statements about natural selection is incorrect?
Occurs in stable environmental conditions
Increases the frequency of favourable alleles in a gene pool
Increases the number of new alleles in a gene pool
Decreases the frequency of unfavourable alleles in a gene pool
The following data shows the presence of four enzymes across three species. Which of thee following phylogenetic trees best presents this data?
Based on the phylogenetic tree above, which two species are most closely related?
Alpaca and blue whale
Wild boar and angus cattle
Angus cattle and white-tailed deer
Pygmy hippopotamus and white-tailed deer
Refer to the following graph, which shows the percentage of similarity for four types of primate DNA compared with human DNA:
*Hu = human being
What provides evidence for the endosymbiotic theory?
Mitochondrial DNA in eukaryotic cells
70S ribosommes in prokaryotic cells
Gene transfer from prokaryotic cells to eukaryotic cells using plasmids
Prokaryotic cells (Escherichia coli) in the large intestine digest proteins
The Western sunflower (Helianthus anomalus) shown below is a hybrid produced between 60,000 and 200,000 years ago by two other sunflower species, Helianthus annuus and Helianthus petiolaris, that share a habitat. Which one of the following processes gave rise to Helianthus anomalus?
The diagram shows the evolution of the modern horse. A drier climate led to a shift from forests to grasslands around 30 million years ago. The change in climate is reflected in the bones of the forefoot. Browsers had shorter legs adapted for browsing on the forest floor, whereas grazers had legs adapted for running on open grassland. Which of the following processes was most influential in driving the evolution of the horse?
The diagram illustrates primary succession in a temperature climate. X represents an example of deflected succession. Which of the following is not a factor that would cause X?
Addition of herbicide
Grazing by herbivores
Introduction of carnivorous species
The cladogram shows several members of the Felidae family. Name the two species that evolved most recently.
The cladogram shows several members of the Felidae family. State how many million years ago the cheetah diverged from a common ancestor.
The cladogram shows several members of the Felidae family. It was produced using evidence from DNA-DNA hybridisation experiments. Explain how DNA-DNA hybridisation experiments provide evidence of evolutionary relationships between different species.
Marsupials in Australia are placental mammals in North America diverged from a common ancestor more than 100 years ago. The diagram shows analogous characteristics in Australian marsupials and North American placental mammals. Name the process that produces analogous characteristics in distantly related species.
Marsupials in Australia are placental mammals in North America diverged from a common ancestor more than 100 years ago. The diagram shows analogous characteristics in Australian marsupials and North American placental mammals. Describe the evolution of analogous characteristics in distantly-related species.