APES Semester 1 Final Exam Review
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  • Question 1
    30 seconds
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    Q.

    In reef ecosystems, corals often have microalgae living inside them. The algae supply the corals with nutrients, and the coral give shelter to the algae. Which of the following interactions best describes the relationship between the corals and the algae?

    answer choices

    Competition

    Mutualism

    Parasitism

    Predation

  • Question 2
    30 seconds
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    Q.

    Which of the following terrestrial biomes has the highest net primary productivity?

    answer choices

    Desert

    Tropical Rain Forest

    Taiga

    Savanna

  • Question 3
    30 seconds
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    Q.

    This biome is found in shallow waters off the coastline and is Earth’s most biologically diverse marine biome.

    answer choices

    Coral Reefs

    Open Ocean

    Freshwater Wetlands

    Rivers

  • Question 4
    30 seconds
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    Q.

    Which of the following biogeochemical cycle is shown in the diagram?

    answer choices

    Carbon Cycle

    Nitrogen Cycle

    Water (Hydrologic) Cycle

    Phosphorus Cycle

  • Question 5
    30 seconds
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    Q.

    Which of the following biogeochemical cycle is shown in the diagram?

    answer choices

    Carbon Cycle

    Nitrogen Cycle

    Water (Hydrologic) Cycle

    Phosphorus Cycle

  • Question 6
    30 seconds
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    Q.

    Which of the following biogeochemical cycle is shown in the diagram?

    answer choices

    Carbon Cycle

    Nitrogen Cycle

    Water (Hydrologic) Cycle

    Phosphorus Cycle

  • Question 7
    30 seconds
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    Q.

    The total rate of photosynthesis in a given area is...

    answer choices

    Primary Producer

    Gross Primary Productivity

    Net Primary Productivity

    Cellular Respiration

  • Question 8
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    Q.

    The energy available to consumers determined by subtracting the energy used by plants from the total energy transformed by the process of photosynthesis.

    answer choices

    Cellular Productivity

    Net Primary Productivity

    Gross Primary Productivity

    Cellular Respiration

  • Question 9
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    Q.

    Based on the second law of thermodynamics, how much biomass of phytoplankton would be needed to produce 1 kilogram (kg) of large fish in this food web?

    answer choices

    1 kg

    10 kg

    100 kg

    1000 kg

  • Question 10
    30 seconds
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    Q.

    Which of the following biogeochemical cycle is shown in the diagram?

    answer choices

    Carbon Cycle

    Nitrogen Cycle

    Water (Hydrologic) Cycle

    Phosphorus Cycle

  • Question 11
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    Q.

    Which of the following ecosystem services is categorized as regulating?

    answer choices

    Drinking water, timber, medicines

    Water purification, pest control, pollination

    Recreation and education

    Photosynthesis, soil formation, nutrient cycling

  • Question 12
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    Q.

    Which tree would be the predominant species in the intermediate stage of succession?

    answer choices

    Tulip Popular

    Red Maple

    Sweetgum

    White Oak

  • Question 13
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    Q.

    Based on the theory of island biogeography, which of the following islands would most likely have the highest number of species living on it?

    answer choices

    Large island, far from mainland

    Large island, close to mainland

    Small island, far from mainland

    Small island, close to mainland

  • Question 14
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    Q.

    Small populations of animals, such as those typically found on islands, are prone to extinction because...

    answer choices

    they contain a high degree of genetic variability

    they tend to have more predators

    they are usually generalist species

    they are more vulnerable to unpredictable events

  • Question 15
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    Q.

    Which of the following can be used to assess the biological diversity of an area?

    answer choices

    Population size of each species and area occupied by each population

    Ratio of r-strategists to K-strategists and life expectancy of K-strategists

    Genetic variation within each species and number of species present

    Minimum population area and minimum viable population size

  • Question 16
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    Q.

    Which of the following is most likely to be the direct result of lack of genetic diversity in a food crop such as corn?

    answer choices

    Decreased potential yield

    Decreased dependence on chemical fertilizers

    Increased susceptibility on plant disease

    Increased resistance to pests

  • Question 17
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    Q.

    Which of the following would most likely result from the deforestation of large areas of tropical rain forests caused by slash-and-burn agriculture?

    answer choices

    Increased ozone thinning because of the release of CFCs

    Decreased acid rain because of the sequestration of SO2

    Increased global temperature because of the release of CO2

    Deceased evaporation because of the loss of the tree canopy

  • Question 18
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    Q.

    Which of the following best shows the process of evolution?

    answer choices

    A lizard's color becomes brown as it sits on a log.

    A bear goes into hibernation.

    A population of foxes increases as more prey becomes available.

    A population of mosquitoes develops resistance to a pesticide.

  • Question 19
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    Q.

    Which of the following is the best example of a keystone species?

    answer choices

    Sea Otter

    Sea Urchin

    Spotted Owl

    Condor

  • Question 20
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    Q.

    A pond is sampled once a year, and its species richness is measured. What best indicates the pond is being adversely affected by a nearby development?

    answer choices

    An uncommon species has become more numerous.

    An increase in low-tolerance species has occurred.

    A decrease in high-tolerance species has occurred.

    The biodiversity of the pond has decreased.

  • Question 21
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    Q.

    During which stage of the demographic transition shown above does a population begin to experience an explosive increase in growth?

    answer choices

    Stage 1

    Stage 2

    Stage 3

    Stage 4

  • Question 22
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    Q.

    A country with an age distribution like that shown in the figure above, is most likely a country that...

    answer choices

    is experiencing rapid growth

    is experiencing slow or no population growth

    is a less-developed country

    is experiencing a high death rate

  • Question 23
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    Q.

    What is the carrying capacity of the ecosystem?

    answer choices

    A

    B

    C

    D

    E

  • Question 24
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    Q.

    Which of the following characteristics is most closely associated with a country that demonstrates the age structure in the diagram shown?

    answer choices

    There is a low infant mortality rate.

    A high percentage of the population has access to medical care.

    There is a low population growth rate.

    There is a high total fertility rate.

  • Question 25
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    Q.

    Which of the following are associated with a decrease in a country's total fertility rate?

    answer choices

    Limited access to health care

    Poor nutrition

    Limited access to clean water

    Delay in age of first marriage and increased

    contraceptive use

  • Question 26
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    Q.

    Which of the following characteristics are associated with a more developed country?

    answer choices

    Large population size

    Large land area

    Low infant mortality rate

    High emigration rate

  • Question 27
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    Q.

    If a country has a crude birth rate of 24 per 1,000 and a crude death rate of 8 per 1,000, the natural annual percent increase of its population is...

    answer choices

    1.6%

    16%

    -1.6%

    32%

  • Question 28
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    Q.

    If the population of a country grows at a rate of approximately 5 percent per year, the number of years required for the population to double is closest to...

    answer choices

    5 years

    10 years

    15 years

    25 years

  • Question 29
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    Q.

    In a human population undergoing the demographic transition, which of the following generally decreases first?

    answer choices

    Birth Rate

    Death Rate

    Life Expectancy

    Family Size

  • Question 30
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    Q.

    Members of an r-selected species characteristically...

    answer choices

    produce few offspring

    have long life spans

    produce few offspring

    reach sexual maturity quickly

  • Question 31
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    Q.

    This map illustrates...

    answer choices

    A transform boundary

    A convergent boundary

    A divergent boundary

    A subduction zone

  • Question 32
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    Q.

    The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is...

    answer choices

    A divergent plate boundary

    A convergent plate boundary

    A transform plate boundary

    A volcanic hot spot

  • Question 33
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    Q.

    Which soil sample is most permeable?

    answer choices

    Soil Sample A

    Soil Sample B

    Soil Sample C

    Not possible to determine

  • Question 34
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    Q.

    Which soil sample would be hold the most water and be best for lining a landfill?

    answer choices

    Soil Sample A

    Soil Sample B

    Soil Sample C

    Not possible to determine

  • Question 35
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    Q.

    The ozone layer is found in the...

    answer choices

    Troposphere

    Stratosphere

    Mesosphere

    Thermosphere

  • Question 36
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    Q.

    What causes warm, moist air to rise at the equator and descend at the 30o N and S latitudes?

    answer choices

    Heat from the ocean

    Heat from the sun

    Cool air from the trade winds

    The Coriolis Effect

  • Question 37
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    Q.

    Which of the following can cause an increase in water pollution in a watershed?

    answer choices

    An increase in the number of grasses, trees, and shrubs

    An increase in the natural systems near a watershed

    An increase in stormwater runoff in urban areas

    A decrease in the number of impervious surfaces near the watershed

  • Question 38
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    Q.

    Summer in Australia occurs in December, not in June. This is because at this time of year...

    answer choices

    the Earth is closest to the Sun due to its elliptical path

    the tilt of Earth causes Australia to receive highly concentrated solar radiation

    the tilt of Earth causes Australia to be closer to the Sun

    the tilt of Earth causes solar radiation to reach Australia at a low angle of incidence

  • Question 39
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    Q.

    In this picture...

    answer choices

    It is summer in the northern hemisphere, because it receives the most direct sunlight.

    It is summer in the southern hemisphere, because it receives the most direct sunlight.

    The Arctic Circle receives no daylight.

    There is 12 hours of daylight and 12 hours of darkness each day at the Equator.

  • Question 40
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    Q.

    Which of the following factors is fundamentally responsible for seasons on Earth?

    answer choices

    The varying distance of Earth from the Sun

    The tidal pull of the Sun and Moon

    The tilt of Earth's axis of rotation

    The latitudinal variation in temperature and precipitation

  • Question 41
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    Q.

    Which of the following would decrease with the manufacture, application, and use of synthetic fertilizers rather than organic fertilizers?

    answer choices

    Groundwater pollution

    Cultural eutrophication

    Use of fossil fuels

    Recycling of organic matter

  • Question 42
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    Q.

    Which irrigation method is most efficient, but most expensive?

    answer choices

    Drip Irrigation

    Flood Irrigation

    Furrow Irrigation

    Spray (or Pivot) Irrigation

  • Question 43
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    Q.

    Which is a concern for GM crops?

    answer choices

    Reduced crop yield and more land needed for agriculture

    Loss of genetic diversity in crops

    GM crops cannot be grown in drought resistant soils

    GM crops require more pesticide applications than non-GM crops

  • Question 44
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    Q.

    What is an advantage of synthetic fertilizers?

    answer choices

    Synthetic fertilizers can provide nutrients tailored specifically to the crops

    Synthetic fertilizers remain in the soil longer than organic fertilizers

    Synthetic fertilizers improve soil texture and water-holding capacity

    Synthetic fertilizers remain in the soil and do not readily run off into waterways

  • Question 45
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    Q.

    Which of the following is the best illustration of the pesticide treadmill?

    answer choices

    Sequence of several pesticides used by farmers to maximize effectiveness

    Process that is used to manufacture pesticides

    Biomagnification of pesticides in the fatty tissue of primary consumers

    Increased use of pesticides to eradicate genetically resistant pests

  • Question 46
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    Q.

    Which of the following changes will result if large areas of land experienced clear-cutting?

    answer choices

    Increased water temperatures in nearby streams

    Decreased evaporation of water from the soil

    Decreased soil erosion

    Decreased runoff and sedimentation into nearby streams

  • Question 47
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    Q.

    Which timber-harvesting method leads to a loss of biodiversity and a fragmented habitat?

    answer choices

    Clear-cutting

    Selective cutting

    Slash and burn clearing

    Shelter-wood cutting

  • Question 48
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    Q.

    Which of the following describes a fundamental characteristic of the green revolution in food resources?

    answer choices

    The application of higher levels of organic fertilizers

    Deforestation to provide field crops with increased sunlight

    The development of new strains of crops with higher yields

    The elimination of mechanization and the reduction of farm sizes

  • Question 49
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    Q.

    A major environmental problem caused by using the agricultural practice of tilling is...

    answer choices

    eutrophication from excessive fertilizer use

    ozone depletion from fossil fuel use

    intercropping by traditional farmers

    compaction of soil from adding compost

  • Question 50
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    Q.

    Which of the following scenarios best explains the concept of the tragedy of the commons?

    answer choices

    Fish farming produces fish through selective breeding to produce a cheap source of protein.

    A collapse of the fishing industry leads to a loss of fishing-related jobs.

    A decline in fish populations cause declines in fish predators, affecting the entire food chain.

    Fish are shared resources; as industry competes for fish, the resources are depleted.

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