AP Human Geography Semester Exam
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  • Question 1
    60 seconds
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    Q.

    The flow lines on the map above most likely represent the movement of

    answer choices

    tourists

    refugees

    guest workers

    illegal drugs

    petroleum

  • Question 2
    30 seconds
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    Q.

    All of the following are examples of the spatial analysis tradition in geography EXCEPT the

    answer choices

    number of space shuttles constructed

    volume of telephone calls between Corey Union and Old Main

    trans-Atlantic slave trade

    distance associated with shopping trips to area malls

    volume of air traffic between London and Hong Kong

  • Question 3
    30 seconds
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    Q.

    Which of the following concepts could best be explained by the theory of possibilism?

    answer choices

    Regional differences between the internal structures of cities

    Changes in population growth rates over time

    Limitations on agricultural crops based on climate

    Political patterns seen in election maps

    Modification of landscapes by human cultures

  • Question 4
    30 seconds
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    Q.

    Which of the following are the best examples of vernacular regions?

    answer choices

    The Canadian Maritimes and the Northwest Territory

    The American West and the American Midwest

    South Africa and Australia

    South America and the Caribbean

    Scandinavia and the Iberian Peninsula

  • Question 5
    30 seconds
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    Q.

    An international company is looking to expand its network of factories, which use labor-intensive production methods, in a region of the world experiencing significant growth in the working-age population. Based on the data in the table, which of the following regions should the company choose?

    answer choices

    North America, which will have faster working-age growth in 2015 to 2030 than in 2000 to 2015

    Asia, which will have a faster working-age growth rate in 2015 to 2030 than in 2000 to 2015

    Latin America, which had the fastest working-age growth rate among world regions from 2000 to 2015

    Asia, which will have the fastest working-age growth rate among world regions from 2015 to 2030

    Sub-Saharan Africa, which will have the fastest working-age growth rate among world regions from 2015 to 2030

  • Question 6
    30 seconds
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    Q.

    Which of the following sets of maps would help explain how scale of inquiry affects truth?

    answer choices

    Maps showing the area of France before and after surveying

    Maps of Hudson Bay drawn by Native Americans and by the earliest European travelers

    Maps showing Michigan's population density by counties and the United States population density by state

    Maps showing the number of auto thefts per block in Seattle in the decades before and

    after the Depression

    Maps of gang graffiti in Philadelphia

  • Question 7
    30 seconds
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    Q.

    Twenty-four specific objects transmit complex radio codes, including time signals traveling at the speed of light. You can contact at least 4 of the 24 objects at any time of day or night.


    The technology described above allows the determination of which of the following?

    answer choices

    The amount of detail that can be shown on a topographic map

    Absolute location on the surface of Earth

    The number of layers that can be accommodated in a geographic information system

    Distances from radio transmission towers and subsidiary satellite dishes

    The weather forecast for any area

  • Question 8
    30 seconds
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    Q.

    The "why of where" refers to

    answer choices

    geography's emphasis on landscape features

    spatial patterns on the landscape

    a definition of geography that is simply locational

    the idea that the explanation of a spatial pattern is crucial

    the depiction of a region's physical features

  • Question 9
    30 seconds
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    Q.

    The satellite images show changes to a portion of the Louisiana coast between 1984 and 2017. The table shows the changes in land acreage. Which of the following best describes the changes and a consequence of the changes?

    answer choices

    The expansion of coastal cities, which results in increased acreage of urban land cover

    A decrease in the acreage of coastal land, which affects the prices of local property

    An increase in the acreage of coastal land, which will be added to navigational charts for shipping

    The rise of sea levels, which results in decreased land acreage available for homes and businesses

    An increase in land acreage caused by the construction of polders for land reclamation

  • Question 10
    30 seconds
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    Q.

    The shaded areas on the map above most likely indicate regions that are affected or threatened by which of the following?

    answer choices

    Depopulation

    Deforestation

    Desertification

    Deindustrialization

    Devolution

  • Question 11
    30 seconds
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    Q.

    A political polling company wants to use census data to collect information on voters in a city by neighborhood. Based on the types of information collected in the survey form, which of the following could be mapped using census data?

    answer choices

    The number of voting-age residents per household

    The political party affiliation of the average resident

    How residents voted in the last election

    How voters might vote in the next national election

    How voters stand on current issues

  • Question 12
    30 seconds
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    Q.

    The sex ratio represented in the age-sex graph above for Country X is most likely the result of

    answer choices

    high infant mortality

    undercounting of females

    an epidemic with high mortality

    a period of war

    a large guest-worker population

  • Question 13
    30 seconds
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    Q.

    All of the following twentieth-century migration streams were propelled by persecution or open conflict EXCEPT

    answer choices

    Asians leaving Uganda

    Kosovars leaving Yugoslavia

    Tutsis leaving Rwanda

    Hindus leaving Pakistan

    Mexicans leaving Mexico

  • Question 14
    30 seconds
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    Q.

    Assuming a world population of 5,700,000,000 and an annual growth rate of 1.6 percent, how many people will be added to the world's population in the next year?

    answer choices

    912,000

    9,120,000

    91,200,000

    912,000,000

    9,120,000,000

  • Question 15
    30 seconds
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    Q.

    Based on the data shown, which of the following describes the most likely population context for the countries listed?

    answer choices

    High youth dependency ratio and a lack of economic resources to provide for large families

    Rapid population growth in cities as people migrate from rural to urban areas for industrial jobs

    Shortage of arable land on which to raise crops and other food products to support the population

    Unstable food supply due to a rapidly growing population

    Stage five of the demographic transition model due to very low birth rates

  • Question 16
    30 seconds
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    Q.

    Which of the following countries is best described as being at Stage 3 of the demographic transition model?

    answer choices

    China: birth rate = 13, death rate =7

    Democratic Republic of the Congo: birth rate = 44, death rate = 10

    Bolivia: birth rate = 24 , death rate = 7

    Ivory Coast: birth rate = 37, death rate = 13

    Hungary: birth rate = 10, death rate = 13

  • Question 17
    30 seconds
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    Q.

    Which of the following country demographics would be used to explain the need for the pronatalist policies shown?

    answer choices

    A country with a birth rate of 11, a death rate of 13, and a rate of natural increase of -0.2, passes a law that requires paid maternity leave.

    A country with a birth rate of 16, a death rate of 4, and a rate of natural increase of 1.2, legislates tax credits for working parents

    A country with a birth rate of 12, a death rate of 10, and a rate of natural increase of 0.2, establishes long maternity leave periods from work

    A country with a birth rate of 12, a death rate of 10, and a rate of natural increase of 0.2, requires full-day kindergarten.

    A country with a birth rate of 20, a death rate of 10, and a rate of natural increase of 1.0, provides state-subsidized day care centers.

  • Question 18
    30 seconds
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    Q.

    The low birth and death rates for a country in stage 4 of the demographic transition model are best explained by

    answer choices

    the rural population and agricultural livelihood of a less developed country.

    the level of education and traditional roles for women in a less developed country

    the resource-based economy and life expectancy of a less developed country

    the level of urbanization and technological advancement of a more developed country

    the environmental pollution and manufacturing infrastructure of a more developed country

  • Question 19
    30 seconds
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    Q.

    Even though total fertility rates have been declining in some less-developed countries, the total population has continued to grow. This is primarily because a high percentage of the population is

    answer choices

    female

    male

    over the age of 15

    under the age of 15

    receiving adequate medical care

  • Question 20
    30 seconds
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    Q.

    In recent decades, all of the following have played a major role in the rapid growth of Sun Belt cities of the United States EXCEPT

    answer choices

    immigration from Latin America

    high levels of per capita federal spending in the South and West

    cheap land and labor

    climatic changes leading to colder northern winters

    the increasing demand for retirement and resort centers

  • Question 21
    30 seconds
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    Q.

    In the early twenty-first century, the largest number of refugees is located on which of the following continents?

    answer choices

    Africa

    Australia

    Europe

    North America

    South America

  • Question 22
    30 seconds
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    Q.

    Which term best describes the majority of voluntary migrants from South Asia to the Persian Gulf countries of Bahrain, Qatar, and Kuwait during the 1990s and 2000s?

    answer choices

    Guest workers

    Refugees

    Rural-to-urban migrants

    Internally displaced persons

    Asylum seekers

  • Question 23
    30 seconds
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    Q.

    The early United States population was predominantly Protestant. In the nineteenth century, urban populations became increasingly Roman Catholic, especially in the cities of the Northeastern United States. This shift in the pattern of religion was caused by

    answer choices

    internal rural-to-urban migration from farming areas of the eastern United States

    transnational migration from Ireland, southern Germany, and Italy

    transnational migration from Latin America and the Caribbean

    religious conversion of urban residents

    out-migration of Protestants to rural farming areas of the Midwestern United States

  • Question 24
    30 seconds
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    Q.

    Which of the following best identifies the data for the Eastern Great Rift Valley, shown on the map?

    answer choices

    High arithmetic density

    Low arithmetic density

    Low carrying capacity

    High total fertility rate

    Low total fertility rate

  • Question 25
    30 seconds
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    Q.

    Which scenario best explains the process of assimilation?

    answer choices

    A family immigrates to a new country, settles near others from their homeland, and conducts most of their day-to-day activities within their ethnic neighborhood.

    Despite the large number of historic churches in France, many French identify as nonreligious and believe that religion is a private matter.

    The island of Mauritius has large populations of Christians, Hindus, and Muslims. The constitution of Mauritius prohibits discrimination and protects freedom of religion.

    The American government educated Native American children in American-style boarding schools. All of the children were taught English, and girls were taught how to be homemakers.

    Hinduism diffused from India to Bali, where it blended with traditional Balinese beliefs to create a form of Hinduism unique to Bali.

  • Question 26
    30 seconds
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    Q.

    At some point in their recent history, all of the following countries became divided into two political entities as a result of cultural or ideological conflict EXCEPT

    answer choices

    Korea

    Vietnam

    Germany

    Ireland

    Japan

  • Question 27
    30 seconds
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    Q.

    The state of California, often considered a hearth of environmental laws, will be the first state to ban plastic straws. Which of the following statements best describes the likely spread of this environmental practice?

    answer choices

    This practice will likely spread via hierarchical diffusion when the president of the United States signs an executive order banning plastic straws in all states

    This practice will likely spread via social media and stimulus diffusion when other states enact identical laws banning plastic straws.

    As regional news organizations report on the ban, this practice will likely spread through contagious diffusion only to western states adjacent to California.

    Strong lobbying by the plastics industry will likely curtail the diffusion of the ban, and this practice will be limited to California.

    Similar environmental laws will likely spread through stimulus diffusion to other states via political activism.

  • Question 28
    30 seconds
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    Q.

    Cities in India have a competitive advantage over cities in China as locations for international consumer services, such as call centers and bill processing. This advantage has its origins in which of the following?

    answer choices

    Low levels of primary-level education in China

    The Indian government’s status as a neutral state in global political affairs

    The English language legacy of British colonialism in India

    Large amounts of mineral resources found in China used to manufacture goods for export

    Chinese emigration to Southeast Asia in the 1800s and 1900s

  • Question 29
    30 seconds
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    Q.

    Identify which of the following concepts or processes is symbolized by the pagoda in the image.

    answer choices

    Acculturation

    Material culture

    Assimilation

    Cultural trait

    Syncretism

  • Question 30
    30 seconds
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    Q.

    Cultural landscape can be defined as

    answer choices

    the types of art, music, dance, and theater practiced in a particular region

    the ways that people in differing cultures perceive the environment

    the forms superimposed on the physical environment by the activities of humans

    the diversity of distinctive cultures within a particular geographic area

    a particular area within a geographic region dedicated to cultural activities

  • Question 31
    30 seconds
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    Q.

    Which of the following geographic concepts can be identified using information evident in the image?

    answer choices

    Cultural diffusion

    Acculturation

    Forced migration

    Sequent occupance

    Cultural relativism

  • Question 32
    30 seconds
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    Q.

    Which of the following features is most useful for describing the cultural landscape shown in the image?

    answer choices

    The ethnicity of the people in the image

    The dragon that the people are holding

    The French language on the banner hanging from the building

    The density of the crowd

    The clothing of the people participating in the parade

  • Question 33
    30 seconds
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    Q.

    Cultural landscape is closest in meaning to which of the following?

    answer choices

    Cultural ecology

    Nonmaterial culture

    Environmental determinism

    Physical environment

    Built environment

  • Question 34
    30 seconds
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    Q.

    Identify the cultural trait that influences the architecture of the cultural landscape shown in the image.

    answer choices

    Ethnicity

    Language

    Taboos

    Religion

    Gender

  • Question 35
    30 seconds
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    Q.

    Based on the two images, which of the following statements best explains the geographic process that took place as Islam diffused from its hearth?

    answer choices

    Islam is confined to the Middle East because it is an ethnic religion that appeals to only one group of people in one region.

    The diffusion of Islam has resulted in a cultural landscape in China that has been radically altered to reflect Islamic architecture.

    Islam diffused hierarchically to the west through conquest and to the east through relocation via missionaries along trade routes.

    The diffusion of Islam has had a minimal impact on regions to the west and east of its hearth in the Middle East.

    The universalizing nature of Islam has allowed it to become worldwide in scope and the dominant religion in North America and Europe.

  • Question 36
    30 seconds
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    Q.

    Which of the following best exemplifies the diffusion of popular culture throughout the world in contemporary society?

    answer choices

    The increasing popularity of a fashion trend that originates in a large city, such as New York, and spreads to small rural towns

    The spread of an Internet meme via social media applications

    The spread of a religion through the migration of adherents of the religion

    The increasing popularity of a new band that spends a year touring cities around the world

    The spread of new slang that becomes widely used in government-funded schools

  • Question 37
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    Q.

    The photograph shows a road sign in the Republic of Ireland. Which of the following best describes the sign's significance within the cultural landscape?

    answer choices

    The sign indicates that County Cork is a linguistic region of the Republic of Ireland.

    The sign delineates an international political border between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland.

    The sign promotes the use of a single language in the region.

    The sign promotes the use of traditional language among citizens of the Republic of Ireland.

    The sign represents a uniform cultural identity within the region.

  • Question 38
    30 seconds
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    Q.

    The sign shown in the image includes an Internet address for the county government. Explain how the sign illustrates the cultural tensions between traditional languages and English.

    answer choices

    The Internet spreads the use of English as a global lingua franca, but the Internet is also a place where traditional languages can be communicated and thrive

    English is used for business and commerce on the Internet, while traditional languages such as Gaelic can only be heard in poems and music recordings but not written on the Internet

    The Internet is produced only in English; as a result, many traditional languages disappear due to the dominance of English-language communication.

    Many countries ban the use of English-language Internet sites in an effort to resist the forces of globalization and protect their traditional languages.

    English is being used less outside of the United Kingdom. Speaking a traditional language as a first language has become the norm in former British colonies.

  • Question 39
    30 seconds
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    Q.

    Which of the following best explains how the English language diffused to the location shown in the image?

    answer choices

    This location is the hearth of the English language, and English is the area's traditional language.

    English was the standard language of the Catholic Church and diffused to this location through religious practices

    English was voluntarily adopted in this location as a useful lingua franca.

    English came to this location recently via imported popular culture such as movies and music.

    The English language was imposed on this location through a process of economic and political domination.

  • Question 40
    30 seconds
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    Q.

    If four languages have similar words for numbers and the names of fish, but different names for a certain disease, what might be concluded about the time at which the disease first diffused?

    answer choices

    The disease spread among a population that later divided and evolved into four different languages.

    The population divided and evolved into the four different languages, and then the disease spread.

    The disease spread to two different populations that later divided into two different languages.

    The disease and language spread to four different regions at the same time at the same rate.

    There can be no conclusions drawn about the initial diffusion of the disease based on language.

  • Question 41
    30 seconds
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    Q.

    Which of the following best explains the Internet’s homogenizing effect on global language patterns?

    answer choices

    The English language is widely used on the Internet.

    Social media applications commonly support dozens of different languages.

    Many governments censor citizens’ Internet access.

    An increasing number of Internet users communicate exclusively through emojis.

    The Internet accelerates communication so that people from different cultures can interact quickly and easily

  • Question 42
    30 seconds
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    Q.

    How does the map illustrate global diffusion of the French language from its cultural hearth in Paris?

    answer choices

    The map shows how French-language movies, music, and literature dominate global entertainment media.

    The map shows how France was an ancient-culture hearth from which the French language spread through expansion diffusion

    The map shows how in many areas of the former French empire the language persists despite the independence of former colonies.

    The map shows how French civil servants established schools in many parts of the French colonial empire.

    The map shows how people’s love of French food has facilitated the spread of the French language to many parts of the world.

  • Question 43
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    Q.

    Which of the following language-location pairs best exemplifies the process of relocation diffusion of language in the twentieth century?

    answer choices

    English in India

    Mandarin in China

    French in Canada

    Hmong in the United States

    Russian in Brazil

  • Question 44
    30 seconds
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    Q.

    Swahili in East Africa and English in global commerce are examples of

    answer choices

    pidgin languages

    lingua franca

    standard language

    creole language

    official language

  • Question 45
    30 seconds
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    Q.

    In the late nineteenth century, a large proportion of Swedish immigrants that came to the United States settled in rural areas of Minnesota. Descendants of these communities remain in Minnesota today, as shown on the map. Which of the following best describes the pattern of Swedish-American ethnicity within Minnesota’s cultural landscape?

    answer choices

    A diffused pattern of Swedish ethnicity evenly distributed across the state

    A clustered pattern of Swedish ethnicity

    A Swedish ethnic majority in the northern half of the state

    A Swedish ethnic majority throughout the state

    A single remnant area with a high percentage of Swedish ethnicity

  • Question 46
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    Q.

    The alignment of ancient Chinese cities toward the cardinal directions (north, south, east, west) best illustrates the importance of which of the following factors in the shaping of these early cities?

    answer choices

    Belief systems

    Topography

    Economics

    Gender

    Technology

  • Question 47
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    Q.

    The diffusion pattern of Walmart stores, which have spread from small towns to large cities throughout the United States, is an example of

    answer choices

    relocation diffusion

    contagious diffusion

    stimulus diffusion

    distance decay

    reverse hierarchical diffusion

  • Question 48
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    Q.

    The Indo-European language family includes the major languages of Europe and those dominant in all the following regions EXCEPT

    answer choices

    Russia

    Northern India

    Iran

    Eastern and Southern Australia

    Central Asia

  • Question 49
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    Q.

    The spread of specialty coffee shops across the United States in the 1990s is an example of

    answer choices

    hierarchical diffusion

    contagious diffusion

    stimulus diffusion

    periodic movement

    relocation diffusion

  • Question 50
    30 seconds
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    Q.

    The term “cultural diffusion” refers to the

    answer choices

    modification of Earth’s surface by human actions

    integration of behavioral traits within a group

    spread of an idea or innovation from its source

    relationship between human cultures and their physical environment

    assimilation of a minority culture into the host society

  • Question 51
    30 seconds
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    Q.

    The world’s three major monotheistic religions originated in which of the following regions?

    answer choices

    East Asia

    Southwest Asia

    Eastern Europe

    Western Europe

    Africa

  • Question 52
    30 seconds
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    Q.

    Toponyms in southern California reflect which of the following?

    answer choices

    Cultural heritage of the settlers

    Importance of time-space convergence

    Growing influence of globalization

    Significance of locational theory

    Role of popular culture in American society

  • Question 53
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    Q.

    Which of the following areas has the greatest linguistic fragmentation?

    answer choices

    Korea

    Scandinavia

    Caucasus

    Argentina

    Quebec

  • Question 54
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    Q.

    Which of the following best defines Carl Sauer’s concept of cultural landscape?

    answer choices

    It is the way people landscape their yards in different parts of the world.

    It is the way houses of worship are built.

    It is the outcome of interactions between humans and their natural environment.

    It is a shared set of meanings and symbolic practices.

    It is the human adaptation to Earth’s physical environment.

  • Question 55
    30 seconds
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    Q.

    Which of the following correctly lists the four major ancient culture hearths?

    answer choices

    Central Asia, Ethiopia, Indonesia, Mesopotamia

    Central Asia, India, Nile Valley, Southern Europe

    Egypt, Mekong Valley, Middle East, Western Africa

    Ethiopia, Ghana, Machu Picchu, Mongolia

    Indus Valley, Mesopotamia, Nile Valley, North China

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