E.S. Earth in the Universe (Topic 3)
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  • Question 1
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    Q.

    From your location, what is the best definition of a celestial object?

    answer choices

    any object in the universe

    any object in the universe above Earth's atmosphere

    any object in the universe outside our solar system

    any object in the universe outside our home galaxy

  • Question 2
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    Q.

    The age of the universe is measured in 10 to 20

    answer choices

    thousands of years

    millions of years

    billions of years

    trillions of years

  • Question 3
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    Q.

    Studies of the universe generally indicate that

    answer choices

    almost all galaxies appear to be moving away from Earth at tremendous velocities

    few galaxies other than our own exist

    all galaxies are approximately the same size

    all galaxies are spiral in shape

  • Question 4
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    Q.

    Background radiation detected in space is believed to be evidence that

    answer choices

    the universe began with an explosion

    all universe is contracting

    all matter in the universe is stationary

    galaxies are evenly spaced throughout the the universe

  • Question 5
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    Q.

    Which statement best describes how most galaxies generally move

    answer choices

    galaxies move toward one another

    galaxies move away from one another

    galaxies move randomly

    galaxies do not move

  • Question 6
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    Q.

    Billions of stars in the same region of the universe are called

    answer choices

    solar systems

    asteroid belts

    constellations

    galaxies

  • Question 7
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    Q.

    In which group are the parts listed in order from oldest to youngest?

    answer choices

    solar system, Milky Way Galaxy, universe

    Milky Way Galaxy, solar system, universe

    universe, solar system, Milky Way Galaxy

    universe, Milky Way Galaxy, solar system

  • Question 8
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    Q.

    The great system of 200 billion stars to which the sun and our solar system belong to is the

    answer choices

    Andromeda Galaxy

    Large Magellanic Galaxy

    Milky Way Galaxy

    Orion Nebula Galaxy

  • Question 9
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    Q.

    A star differs from a planet in that a star

    answer choices

    has a fixed orbit

    is self-luminous

    revolves about the sun

    shines by reflected light

  • Question 10
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    Q.

    The sun's energy is most likely the result of of the

    answer choices

    fusion of hydrogen atoms

    transformation of the sun's gravitational potential energy to heat energy

    burning fossil fuels

    radioactive decay of uranium and thorium atoms

  • Question 11
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    Q.

    Nuclear fusion can only occur in areas of

    answer choices

    high temperature and low pressure

    high temperature and high pressure

    low temperature and low pressure

    low temperature and low pressure

  • Question 12
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    Q.

    As star color changes from blue to red, the surface temperature of the star

    answer choices

    decreases

    increases

    remains the same

  • Question 13
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    Q.

    A luminosity and temperature of stars diagram classifies a star of high temperature and low luminosity as a

    answer choices

    giant

    main sequence star

    supergiant

    white dwarf

  • Question 14
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    Q.

    Base your answer to this question on the Characteristics of Stars diagram in the Earth Science Reference Tables.

    A main sequence star is 1000 times more luminous than the sun. The temperature is likely to be most nearly

    answer choices

    3000 K

    5000 K

    12,000 K

    25,000 K

  • Question 15
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    Q.

    Base your answer to this question on the Characteristics of Stars diagram in the Earth Science Reference Tables.

    A white dwarf star has a temperature of 13,000 K. What is the probable luminosity of the star?

    answer choices

    100

    10

    0.1

    0.01

  • Question 16
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    Q.

    Base your answer to this question on the Characteristics of Stars diagram in the Earth Science Reference Tables.

    A giant star has a luminosity of 300. Its color is most likely to be

    answer choices

    yellow-red

    black

    white

    blue-white

  • Question 17
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    Q.

    Base your answer to this question on the Characteristics of Stars diagram in the Earth Science Reference Tables.

    An orange star has a temperature of 4000 K and is 500,000 times as luminous as the sun. To which group does it belong?

    answer choices

    giants

    supergiants

    white dwarfs

    main sequence

  • Question 18
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    Q.

    Base your answer to this question on the Characteristics of Stars diagram in the Earth Science Reference Tables.

    The nearest star to the sun is Alpha Centauri. How does this star compare to the sun?

    answer choices

    it is much hotter

    it has a different color

    it has a higher luminosity

    it is much smaller in diameter

  • Question 19
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    Q.

    Base your answer to this question on the Characteristics of Stars diagram in the Earth Science Reference Tables.

    The sun is best described as a

    answer choices

    very large star

    red star

    medium-sized star

    cool star

  • Question 20
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    Q.

    Base your answer to this question on the Characteristics of Stars diagram in the Earth Science Reference Tables.

    The sun is brighter than any star in the group of

    answer choices

    supergiants

    giants

    main sequence stars

    white dwarfs

  • Question 21
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    Q.

    Base your answer to this question on the Characteristics of Stars diagram in the Earth Science Reference Tables.

    Which type of star is associated with the last stage in the evolutionary development of most stars?

    answer choices

    main sequence star

    supergiant

    giant

    white dwarf

  • Question 22
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    Q.

    Comets are considered to belong to the solar system if they

    answer choices

    glow by reflected light

    revolve about the sun

    have elliptical orbits

    have uniform periods of revolution

  • Question 23
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    Q.

    A person observes that a bright object streaks across the nighttime sky in a few seconds. What is this object most likely to be

    answer choices

    a comet

    a meteor

    an explosion on the sun

    an orbiting satellite

  • Question 24
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    Q.

    A belt of asteroids is located an average of distance of 503 million kilometers from the sun. Between which two planets is this belt located?

    answer choices

    Mars and Jupiter

    Mars and Earth

    Jupiter and Saturn

    Saturn and Uranus

  • Question 25
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    Q.

    Which is not included in our solar system?

    answer choices

    Polaris

    the moon

    meteors

    asteroids

  • Question 26
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    Q.

    in the last billion years when meteorites, asteroids, or comets collided with Earth, which has occurred?

    answer choices

    Craters have formed

    The whole Earth's surface has melted

    All life has been destroyed

    The oceans have largely evaporated

  • Question 27
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    Q.

    Today it is most commonly believed that our solar system formed

    answer choices

    by gravitational collapse of a gas-dust "cloud"

    from material exploded from the sun

    at the time of the Big Bang that formed the present universe

    by fusion of matter between the sun and a passing star

  • Question 28
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    Q.

    The Jovian planets have more gravitational pull than the terrestrial planets. Therefore they have

    answer choices

    a shorter year

    higher average density

    higher surface temperature

    more low-density gases in their atmosphere

  • Question 29
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    Q.

    Which graph best illustrates the relationship between the diameter of a planet versus the distance of the planet from the sun?

    answer choices

    Graph 1

    Graph 2

    Graph 3

    Graph 4

  • Question 30
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    Q.

    Which graph best illustrates the relationship between the time it takes a planet to make one revolution around the sun versus the distance of the planet from the sun?

    answer choices

    Graph 1

    Graph 2

    Graph 3

    Graph 4

  • Question 31
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    Q.

    Use your Earth Science Reference Tables for the following question

    The planet that has the shortest day is

    answer choices

    Mercury

    Earth

    Jupiter

    Uranus

  • Question 32
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    Q.

    Use your Earth Science Reference Tables for the following question
    Which member of the solar system has an equatorial diameter of  3.48×1033.48\times10^3  kilometers

    answer choices

    the moon

    Earth

    the sun

    Mercury

  • Question 33
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    Q.

    The planets known as "gas giants," or Jovians, include Jupiter, Uranus and

    answer choices

    Mercury

    Saturn

    Mars

    Earth

  • Question 34
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    Q.

    Which three planets are known as terrestrial planets because of their high density and rocky composition.

    answer choices

    Venus, Neptune, Mercury

    Venus, Saturn, Neptune

    Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus

    Mercury, Mars, Venus

  • Question 35
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    Q.

    Astronomers have observed a reddish spot on the surface of Jupiter. From observations of this spot, it is possible to estimate the

    answer choices

    period of Jupiter's rotation

    period of Jupiter's revolution

    pressure of Jupiter's atmoshpere

    temperature of Jupiter's surface

  • Question 36
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    Q.

    Use your Earth Science Reference Tables for the following question

    Which planet takes longer for one spin on its axis than for one orbit around the sun.

    answer choices

    Mercury

    Venus

    Earth

    Mars

  • Question 37
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    Q.

    Use your Earth Science Reference Tables for the following question

    Which planet revolves fastest in its orbit?

    answer choices

    Earth

    Jupiter

    Mercury

    Neptune

  • Question 38
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    Q.

    Which diagram best approximates the shape of the path of Earth as it travels around the sun?

    answer choices

    diagram 1

    diagram 2

    diagram 3

    diagram 4

  • Question 39
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    Q.
    answer choices

    less than 40 days

    greater than 40 days

    40 days

  • Question 40
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    Q.

    Use your Earth Science Reference Table to answer the following question

    Which planet's orbit is most nearly circular?

    answer choices

    Earth

    Venus

    Neptune

    Jupiter

  • Question 41
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    Q.

    As the distance between two objects in the universe increases, the gravitational attraction between these two objects

    answer choices

    decreases

    increases

    stays the same

  • Question 42
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    Q.

    The diagram shows Earth (E) in orbit about the sun. If gravitational force were suddenly eliminated, toward which position would Earth then move?

    answer choices

    1

    2

    3

    4

  • Question 43
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    Q.

    The force of gravity between two objects is greatest when

    answer choices

    masses are small and the objects are close together

    masses are small and the objects are far apart

    masses are large and the objects are close together

    masses are large and the objects are far apart

  • Question 44
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    Q.
    answer choices
  • Question 45
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    Q.
    answer choices
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