E.S. Earth in the Universe (Topic 3)
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• Question 1
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Q.

From your location, what is the best definition of a celestial object?

any object in the universe

any object in the universe above Earth's atmosphere

any object in the universe outside our solar system

any object in the universe outside our home galaxy

• Question 2
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Q.

The age of the universe is measured in 10 to 20

thousands of years

millions of years

billions of years

trillions of years

• Question 3
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Q.

Studies of the universe generally indicate that

almost all galaxies appear to be moving away from Earth at tremendous velocities

few galaxies other than our own exist

all galaxies are approximately the same size

all galaxies are spiral in shape

• Question 4
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Background radiation detected in space is believed to be evidence that

the universe began with an explosion

all universe is contracting

all matter in the universe is stationary

galaxies are evenly spaced throughout the the universe

• Question 5
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Q.

Which statement best describes how most galaxies generally move

galaxies move toward one another

galaxies move away from one another

galaxies move randomly

galaxies do not move

• Question 6
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Q.

Billions of stars in the same region of the universe are called

solar systems

asteroid belts

constellations

galaxies

• Question 7
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Q.

In which group are the parts listed in order from oldest to youngest?

solar system, Milky Way Galaxy, universe

Milky Way Galaxy, solar system, universe

universe, solar system, Milky Way Galaxy

universe, Milky Way Galaxy, solar system

• Question 8
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Q.

The great system of 200 billion stars to which the sun and our solar system belong to is the

Andromeda Galaxy

Large Magellanic Galaxy

Milky Way Galaxy

Orion Nebula Galaxy

• Question 9
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Q.

A star differs from a planet in that a star

has a fixed orbit

is self-luminous

revolves about the sun

shines by reflected light

• Question 10
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Q.

The sun's energy is most likely the result of of the

fusion of hydrogen atoms

transformation of the sun's gravitational potential energy to heat energy

burning fossil fuels

radioactive decay of uranium and thorium atoms

• Question 11
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Nuclear fusion can only occur in areas of

high temperature and low pressure

high temperature and high pressure

low temperature and low pressure

low temperature and low pressure

• Question 12
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Q.

As star color changes from blue to red, the surface temperature of the star

decreases

increases

remains the same

• Question 13
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Q.

A luminosity and temperature of stars diagram classifies a star of high temperature and low luminosity as a

giant

main sequence star

supergiant

white dwarf

• Question 14
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Q.

Base your answer to this question on the Characteristics of Stars diagram in the Earth Science Reference Tables.

A main sequence star is 1000 times more luminous than the sun. The temperature is likely to be most nearly

3000 K

5000 K

12,000 K

25,000 K

• Question 15
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Q.

Base your answer to this question on the Characteristics of Stars diagram in the Earth Science Reference Tables.

A white dwarf star has a temperature of 13,000 K. What is the probable luminosity of the star?

100

10

0.1

0.01

• Question 16
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Q.

Base your answer to this question on the Characteristics of Stars diagram in the Earth Science Reference Tables.

A giant star has a luminosity of 300. Its color is most likely to be

yellow-red

black

white

blue-white

• Question 17
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Q.

Base your answer to this question on the Characteristics of Stars diagram in the Earth Science Reference Tables.

An orange star has a temperature of 4000 K and is 500,000 times as luminous as the sun. To which group does it belong?

giants

supergiants

white dwarfs

main sequence

• Question 18
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Q.

Base your answer to this question on the Characteristics of Stars diagram in the Earth Science Reference Tables.

The nearest star to the sun is Alpha Centauri. How does this star compare to the sun?

it is much hotter

it has a different color

it has a higher luminosity

it is much smaller in diameter

• Question 19
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Q.

Base your answer to this question on the Characteristics of Stars diagram in the Earth Science Reference Tables.

The sun is best described as a

very large star

red star

medium-sized star

cool star

• Question 20
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Q.

Base your answer to this question on the Characteristics of Stars diagram in the Earth Science Reference Tables.

The sun is brighter than any star in the group of

supergiants

giants

main sequence stars

white dwarfs

• Question 21
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Q.

Base your answer to this question on the Characteristics of Stars diagram in the Earth Science Reference Tables.

Which type of star is associated with the last stage in the evolutionary development of most stars?

main sequence star

supergiant

giant

white dwarf

• Question 22
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Q.

Comets are considered to belong to the solar system if they

glow by reflected light

revolve about the sun

have elliptical orbits

have uniform periods of revolution

• Question 23
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Q.

A person observes that a bright object streaks across the nighttime sky in a few seconds. What is this object most likely to be

a comet

a meteor

an explosion on the sun

an orbiting satellite

• Question 24
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Q.

A belt of asteroids is located an average of distance of 503 million kilometers from the sun. Between which two planets is this belt located?

Mars and Jupiter

Mars and Earth

Jupiter and Saturn

Saturn and Uranus

• Question 25
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Q.

Which is not included in our solar system?

Polaris

the moon

meteors

asteroids

• Question 26
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in the last billion years when meteorites, asteroids, or comets collided with Earth, which has occurred?

Craters have formed

The whole Earth's surface has melted

All life has been destroyed

The oceans have largely evaporated

• Question 27
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Today it is most commonly believed that our solar system formed

by gravitational collapse of a gas-dust "cloud"

from material exploded from the sun

at the time of the Big Bang that formed the present universe

by fusion of matter between the sun and a passing star

• Question 28
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The Jovian planets have more gravitational pull than the terrestrial planets. Therefore they have

a shorter year

higher average density

higher surface temperature

more low-density gases in their atmosphere

• Question 29
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Which graph best illustrates the relationship between the diameter of a planet versus the distance of the planet from the sun?

Graph 1

Graph 2

Graph 3

Graph 4

• Question 30
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Which graph best illustrates the relationship between the time it takes a planet to make one revolution around the sun versus the distance of the planet from the sun?

Graph 1

Graph 2

Graph 3

Graph 4

• Question 31
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Q.

Use your Earth Science Reference Tables for the following question

The planet that has the shortest day is

Mercury

Earth

Jupiter

Uranus

• Question 32
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Q.

Use your Earth Science Reference Tables for the following question
Which member of the solar system has an equatorial diameter of  $3.48\times10^3$  kilometers

the moon

Earth

the sun

Mercury

• Question 33
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The planets known as "gas giants," or Jovians, include Jupiter, Uranus and

Mercury

Saturn

Mars

Earth

• Question 34
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Q.

Which three planets are known as terrestrial planets because of their high density and rocky composition.

Venus, Neptune, Mercury

Venus, Saturn, Neptune

Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus

Mercury, Mars, Venus

• Question 35
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Q.

Astronomers have observed a reddish spot on the surface of Jupiter. From observations of this spot, it is possible to estimate the

period of Jupiter's rotation

period of Jupiter's revolution

pressure of Jupiter's atmoshpere

temperature of Jupiter's surface

• Question 36
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Q.

Use your Earth Science Reference Tables for the following question

Which planet takes longer for one spin on its axis than for one orbit around the sun.

Mercury

Venus

Earth

Mars

• Question 37
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Q.

Use your Earth Science Reference Tables for the following question

Which planet revolves fastest in its orbit?

Earth

Jupiter

Mercury

Neptune

• Question 38
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Q.

Which diagram best approximates the shape of the path of Earth as it travels around the sun?

diagram 1

diagram 2

diagram 3

diagram 4

• Question 39
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Q.

less than 40 days

greater than 40 days

40 days

• Question 40
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Q.

Use your Earth Science Reference Table to answer the following question

Which planet's orbit is most nearly circular?

Earth

Venus

Neptune

Jupiter

• Question 41
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Q.

As the distance between two objects in the universe increases, the gravitational attraction between these two objects

decreases

increases

stays the same

• Question 42
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The diagram shows Earth (E) in orbit about the sun. If gravitational force were suddenly eliminated, toward which position would Earth then move?

1

2

3

4

• Question 43
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Q.

The force of gravity between two objects is greatest when

masses are small and the objects are close together

masses are small and the objects are far apart

masses are large and the objects are close together

masses are large and the objects are far apart

• Question 44
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Q.