Following juggling practice, the structural changes in the volunteers' brains were described as...
The sample comprised ....
The mean age of the participants was...
The juggler and non-juggler groups were matched according to...
Both groups were inexperienced in juggling at the time of their first brain scan.
How many months elapsed between scan 1 and scan 2?
What juggling trick did the jugglers have to learn?
The second scan was given when the Pps had become skilled jugglers. Skilled was operationalised as 'being able to juggle for at least...'
A third scan was carried out ....... months later;
Jugglers were not allowed to practice between months 3 and 6
Most people were still able to juggle by the time of the third scan
Draganski's study used ..... brain scans
At scan 1 there was a significant difference between the juggler and the non-jugglers in the amount of grey matter in the temporal region.
At scan 2, the juggler group had significantly more grey matter in the ............ than the non-jugglers.
At scan 2, the jugglers group showed significantly more grey matter in the ............ than the non-jugglers
At scan 2, the juggler group had significantly less grey matter in the intraparietal sulcus than the non-jugglers
By the third scan the jugglers' increase in grey matter had....
The non jugglers also showed some increase in grey matter between scans 1 and 2 but not as much as the jugglers
The jugglers' brain scans showed significantly less grey matter at scan 3 (compared to scan 2) in regions associated with the processing and storage of complex visual motion.
Draganski et al. (2004) concluded that juggling and consequently the perception and spatial anticipation of moving objects, is a stronger stimulus for structural plasticity in the
One problem with the study is that the brain regions may have undergone change simply due to the passage of time between scans
The passage of time cannot be said to be responsible for the change in size of the brain regions between scans because
The people who gained most grey matter between scans 1 and 2 were
The fact that the people were learning to juggle purely for the purpose of an experiment means the study could be seen to lack...
In real life the level of synpatogenesis may be affected by factors such as stress
In a follow up study Draganski scanned the brains of how many medical students before and after their final exams,
In the medical students follow-up study Draganski found increased grey matter the ..... in the early days after the exam, which he put down to the many hours spent revising.
Three months after their exams, Draganki noted that the medical students' hippocampi had shrunk back down to their original size.
Stress increases our secretion of corticosterone and this substance is associated with...
Brain scans showed that medical students hippocampi continued to increase in size once their final medical exams were over.