AP Biology - Phylogeny and Cladograms
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  • Question 1
    30 seconds
    Q.

    What does each node of a phylogenetic tree represent?

    answer choices

    A combining of separate populations into one large population

    A time interval of approximately 1000 years

    An event that splits a single lineage into two lineages

    A documented piece of fossil evidence

  • Question 2
    30 seconds
    Q.

    Which statement about the relatedness of organisms is true?

    answer choices

    Organisms living now cannot be related to extinct organisms that died out thousands of years ago.

    Because they are physically separated, two organisms living in completely different parts of the world cannot be related.

    For organisms to be related to one another, they must share similar physical traits.

    A relationship exists between any two organisms because they share a common ancestor.

  • Question 3
    30 seconds
    Q.

    What is the difference between a root and a node of a phylogenetic tree?

    answer choices

    A root represents all living species, whereas a node represents a single species.

    A root represents living species that have undergone little or no evolutionary change, whereas a node represents living species that have undergone evolutionary change.

    A root represents an extinct species, whereas a node represents a living species.

    A root represents the earliest ancestor that all species have in common, whereas a node represents later ancestors that some species have in common.

  • Question 4
    30 seconds
    Q.

    Which statement about phylogenetic trees is false?

    answer choices

    Rotation of lineages around a node can change the meaning of a phylogenetic tree.

    A node is another word for branching point on a phylogenetic tree.

    Both large and small groups of organisms can be used to construct a phylogenetic tree.

    A phylogenetic tree is a representation of evolutionary relationships among organisms.

  • Question 5
    30 seconds
    Q.

    A group of species that consists of a common ancestor and all of its evolutionary descendants is called a

    answer choices

    population

    lineage

    clade

    taxon

  • Question 6
    30 seconds
    Q.

    Which group of species represents a clade?

    answer choices

    A, B, D, and E

    B, C, and D

    C and E

    D, C and E

  • Question 7
    30 seconds
    Q.

    Which diagram conveys phylogenetic information that differs from the others?

    answer choices

    Tree 1

    Tree 2

    Tree 3

    Tree 4

  • Question 8
    30 seconds
    Q.

    What statement is consistent with this phylogenetic tree?

    answer choices

    Lampreys and lizards do not have a common ancestor.

    Perch and crocodiles have the same common ancestor as chimpanzees and lampreys.

    Pigeons and mice belong to sister clades.

    Salamanders and mice cannot be grouped in the same clade.

  • Question 9
    30 seconds
    Q.

    Biologists would use a phylogenetic tree to

    answer choices

    date a fossil

    compare developmental stages within a species

    classify a newly-discovered species

    predict effects of environmental change on an organism's life span

  • Question 10
    30 seconds
    Q.

    Any features shared by two species and inherited from a common ancestor are said to be

    answer choices

    Homologous

    Convergent

    Phylogenetic

    Ancestral

  • Question 11
    30 seconds
    Q.

    A phylogenetic analysis of a group of organisms can

    answer choices

    provide information about when specific traits evolved.

    help pinpoint when a particular genetic mutation occurred.

    allow biologists to make predictions about the relationship between traits and selective pressures.

    identify the sequence of evolutionary change in a particular lineage.

  • Question 12
    30 seconds
    Q.

    Which pair of organisms has the most shared derived traits?

    answer choices

    Cow; whale

    Whale; lizard

    Lizard; hawk

    Horse; cow

  • Question 13
    30 seconds
    Q.

    Similar traits that arise independently in different lineages through convergent evolution are called

    answer choices

    Homologous traits

    Homoplastic traits

    Derived traits

    Synapomorphies

  • Question 14
    30 seconds
    Q.

    What synapomorphies are shared by lizards and salamanders?

    answer choices

    Lungs only

    Lungs and jaws

    Lungs, jaws, and claws/nails

    Lungs and claws/nails

  • Question 15
    30 seconds
    Q.

    Derived traits that are shared among a group of organisms are called

    answer choices

    homoplasies

    synapomorphies

    convergent traits

    parsimonies

  • Question 16
    30 seconds
    Q.

    Which statement about traits and phylogeny is true?

    answer choices

    All similar traits are evidence of relatedness

    All shared traits are synapomorphies

    All synapomorphies can be classified as either ancestral or derived traits, depending on the point of reference.

    Some traits can appear to have different origins but evolved from a common ancestor

    through evolutionary reversal.

  • Question 17
    30 seconds
    Q.

    Biologists have observed a similar change in several distantly related vertebrates. These organisms all decreased in size when they migrated from the mainland to different islands. The most likely explanation for this shared similarity is that the traits

    answer choices

    resulted from synapomorphy.

    arose by convergent evolution.

    evolved as homologous traits.

    share the same ancestral genes.

  • Question 18
    30 seconds
    Q.

    Why are the bones making up bird and bat wings considered to be homologous, but the wings as a whole are not?

    answer choices

    The bones in birds and bats are similar in appearance, whereas the wing structures in these organisms are very different.

    Bone traits are governed by fewer genetic elements than wing traits, which are more complex.

    Bone traits are under much different selective pressures from the environment than wing traits.

    Bone traits existed in a common ancestor from long ago, while wing traits evolved after the bird and bat lineages split.

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