Cell to Cell Communication
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  • Question 1
    30 seconds
    Q. The three stages of cell signalling are
    answer choices
    paracrine, local, and synaptic
    reception, transduction, and response
    transcription, translation, and folding
    alpha, beta, and gamma
  • Question 2
    30 seconds
    Q. Each of the following numbered processes are involved in signal transduction pathways:  
     I.  Response
     
    II.  Amplification
     
     III.  Reception
     
    IV.  Transduction
    Which of the following represents the sequence of events in a typical signal transduction pathway?
    answer choices
    I, II, III, IV
    III, I, IV, II
    II, IV, I, III
    III, IV, II, I
  • Question 3
    30 seconds
    Q. G proteins are a family of proteins involved in transmitting chemical signals originating from outside a cell into the inside of the cell. G proteins function as molecular switches.
    Which of the following best describes the role in which the G protein is most intimately involved in the process shown above?
    answer choices
    Production of the ligand molecule.
    Reception of the signal.
    Transduction of the signal.
    Production of response to signal.
  • Question 4
    30 seconds
    Q. All of the following statements about ligand-receptor complexes are true EXCEPT
    answer choices
    A.  Most receptors exhibit ligand specificity.
    Ligand–receptor interactions are reversible
    Ligand–receptor interactions are reversible
    Ligand-receptor complexes are most often formed in cell communication pathways in which participating cells are in direct contact
  • Question 5
    30 seconds
    Q. When epinephrine binds to cardiac (heart) muscle cells, it speeds their contraction. When it binds to muscle cells of the small intestine, it inhibits their contraction. Which of the following best accounts for the fact that the same hormone can have different effects on muscle cells?
    answer choices
    Cardiac cells have more receptors for epinephrine than do intestinal cells
    Epinephrine circulates to the heart first and thus is in higher concentration around cardiac cells
    The two types of muscle cells have different signal transduction pathways for epinephrine and thus have different cellular responses
    Cardiac muscle is stronger than intestinal muscle and thus has a stronger response to epinephrine
  • Question 6
    60 seconds
    Q. Which of the following can activate a protein by transferring a phosphate group to it?
    answer choices
    cAMP
    G Protein
    protein kinase
    protein phosphatase
  • Question 7
    60 seconds
    Q. What do second messengers do?
    answer choices
    transport a signal molecule through the lipid bilayer and into the cytoplasm
    relay a message from the receptor of the first messenger throughout the cytoplasm
    transmit a message from the outside of the membrane to the extracellular fluid
    produce a cellular response  such as the production of a protein
  • Question 8
    60 seconds
    Q. Signal amplification is most often achieved by
    answer choices
    an enzyme cascade
    binding of multiple signals
    branching pathways
    action of adenylyl cyclase
  • Question 9
    30 seconds
    Q. Which of the following is an example of a second messenger?
    answer choices
    cAMP
    GTP
    insulin
    epinephrine
  • Question 10
    30 seconds
    Q. Cell signaling involves converting extracellular signals to specific responses inside the target cell. Which of the following best describes how a cell initially responds to a signal?
    answer choices
    The cell experiences a change in receptor conformation
    The cell experiences an influx of ions
    The cell experiences an increase in protein kinase activity
    The cell experiences G protein activation
  • Question 11
    60 seconds
    Q. What is a G protein?
    answer choices
    specific type of membrane-receptor protein
    protein on the cytoplasmic side of a membrane
    membrane-bound enzyme
    relay protein
  • Question 12
    60 seconds
    Q. Which of the following can activate a protein by transferring a phosphate group to it?
    answer choices
    cAMP
    G Protein
    protein kinase
    protein phosphatase
  • Question 13
    30 seconds
    Q. Epinephrine (also known as adrenaline or adrenalin) is a hormone and a neurotransmitter. The model for the action of Epinephrine is shown below.
    Which of the following molecules act as a second messenger in the cascade by which epinephrine stimulates the activation of the enzyme glycogen phosphorylase?
    answer choices
    Adenosine
    Adenylyl cyclase
    Citric acid
    Cyclic AMP
  • Question 14
    30 seconds
    Q. Epinephrine (also known as adrenaline or adrenalin) is a hormone and a neurotransmitter. The model for the action of Epinephrine is shown below.
    Which of the following represents the correct ordering of the molecules that are activated by a single molecule of epinephrine, from highest number of molecules to lowest number of molecules?
    answer choices
    cAMP, protein kinase A, phosphorylase kinase, glycogen phosphorylase
    Glycogen phosphorylase, phosphorylase kinase, protein kinase A, cAMP
    cAMP, phosphorylase kinase, glycogen phosphorylase, protein kinase A
    Glycogen phosphorylase, cAMP, protein kinase A, phosphorylase kinase
  • Question 15
    30 seconds
    Q. Epinephrine (also known as adrenaline or adrenalin) is a hormone and a neurotransmitter. The model for the action of Epinephrine is shown below.
    Which of the following would likely not be observed in a person injected with epinephrine?
    answer choices
    Decreased production of cAMP in liver cells
    Inactivation of glycogen synthase
    Increased glucose mobilization
    Activation of G proteins
  • Question 16
    30 seconds
    Q. Epinephrine (also known as adrenaline or adrenalin) is a hormone and a neurotransmitter. The model for the action of Epinephrine is shown below.
    Which of the following best describes a benefit of the many steps involved in a protein kinase cascade?
    answer choices
    It allows for the activation or inhibition of many enzymes.
    It allows for the amplification of the signal.
    It allows for the distribution of the signal throughout the inside of the cell.
     All of the above.
  • Question 17
    30 seconds
    Q. Epinephrine (also known as adrenaline or adrenalin) is a hormone and a neurotransmitter. The model for the action of Epinephrine is shown below.
    All of the following are enzymes involved in the signal transduction pathway shown EXCEPT
    answer choices
    adenyl cyclase
    protein kinase A
    phosphorylase kinase
    epinephrine
  • Question 18
    30 seconds
    Q. G proteins are a family of proteins involved in transmitting chemical messages originating from outside a cell into the inside of the cell. G proteins function as molecular switches.
    Which of the following best describes the role in which the G protein is most intimately involved in the process shown above?
    answer choices
    Production of the ligand molecule.
    Reception of the signal.
    Transduction of the signal.
    Production of response to signal.
  • Question 19
    30 seconds
    Q. G proteins are a family of proteins involved in transmitting chemical messages originating from outside a cell into the inside of the cell. G proteins function as molecular switches.
    Investigations into the causes behind symptoms in Alzheimer’s patients have led to the hypothesis that the disease may be caused by excessive activity of IP3 second messengers in brain cells. When comparing cell samples of Alzheimer’s patients to those taken from the control group, which of the following pieces of evidence would support this hypothesis?
    answer choices
    A lower number of receptor proteins in the Alzheimer cell samples.
    A greater volume of endoplasmic reticulum membrane in the control group cell samples.
    A higher concentration of calcium ions in the cytosol of the Alzheimer cell samples.
    A lower number of activated proteins in the cytosol of the Alzheimer cell samples
  • Question 20
    30 seconds
    Q. The term steroid describes both hormones produced by the body and artificially produced medications that duplicate the action for the naturally occurring steroids. All of the following describe steroid hormones EXCEPT:
    answer choices
    A.  They bind with receptor proteins in the plasma membrane to trigger cellular responses.
    A.  They are derived from cholesterol and are lipid soluble.
    They serve as ligands in signal transduction pathways
    A.  They are exemplified by testosterone, estrogen and progesterone
  • Question 21
    30 seconds
    Q. Which areas in the diagram depict the process of transduction in the signal transduction pathway of cell communication?
    answer choices
    Q and R
    Q and U
    S and T
    T and U
  • Question 22
    30 seconds
    Q. The data shown was collected in an experiment designed to test the hypothesis that a second messenger mediates between receptor activation at the plasma membrane and enzyme activation in the cytoplasm. Liver tissue was homogenated and used to make three test solutions; a whole homogenate, a fraction containing plasma membrane and a fraction containing cytoplasm but no plasma membrane. Which of the following would be a reasonable conclusion based on the data collected?
    answer choices
    All cells in an organism respond to the presence of epinephrine via second messengers present in the homogenate
    A soluble second messenger, produced by hormone-actived membranes is present in the solution and activates enzymes in the cytoplasm
    Epinephrine is a hormone found bound in the membrane of cells and requires a ligand to stimulate its transduction
    An epineprine signal transduction pathway works more efficiently at warmer temperatures
  • Question 23
    60 seconds
    Q. What is a G protein?
    answer choices
    specific type of membrane-receptor protein
    protein on the cytoplasmic side of a membrane
    membrane-bound enzyme
    relay protein
  • Question 24
    60 seconds
    Q. Which of the following is involved in many human medicines for disease?
    answer choices
    cAMP
    Calcium concentration
    G-protein pathways
    receptor tyrosine kinases
  • Question 25
    60 seconds
    Q. What does a protein phosphatase do?
    answer choices
    removes phosphates
    transfers phosphates from ATP to proteins
    activates an enzyme with a signal molecule
  • Question 26
    60 seconds
    Q. What is a phosphorylation cascade?
    answer choices
    travelling of hormones through the blood
    facilitated diffusion of hydrophilic molecules through a channel protein
    the removal of a phosphate from a molecule
    a series of molecules that are sequentially phosphorylated
  • Question 27
    30 seconds
    Q. What activates adenylyl cyclase?
    answer choices
    epinephrine binding to it
    an activated G protein
    cAMP
    a protein kinase
  • Question 28
    30 seconds
    Q. What is the mechanism of protein kinases?
    answer choices
    activate proteins by dephosphorylating them
    activate proteins with cAMP
    change membrane potential
    activate proteins by phosphorylating them
  • Question 29
    30 seconds
    Q. What is one effect epinephrine has on liver cells?
    answer choices
    uptake glucose to store as glycogen
    break glycogen down to release glucose
    decreases blood vessel diameter
    decreases blood glucose levels
  • Question 30
    60 seconds
    Q. Which of the following is a chemical message that usually travels through the bloodstream to target cells?
    answer choices
    hormone
    local regulator
    neurotransmitter
    second messenger
  • Question 31
    60 seconds
    Q. What is a function of the second messenger IP3?
    answer choices
    bind to and activate protein kinase A
    activate transcription factors
    convert ATP to cAMP
    bind to and open ligand-gated channels
  • Question 32
    30 seconds
    Q. G proteins are regulated by which molecule?
    answer choices
    GTP
    ATP
    inorganic phosphate
    Glucose
  • Question 33
    30 seconds
    Q. Which is a common second messenger?
    answer choices
    cAMP
    Na+
    K+
    G Protein
  • Question 34
    30 seconds
    Q. Tyrosine kinases are responsible for transferring which molecule?
    answer choices
    phosphate
    oxygen
    hydrogen
    ADP
  • Question 35
    30 seconds
    Q. What class of macromolecules includes transcription factors?
    answer choices
    carbohydrates
    nucleic acids
    proteins
    lipids
  • Question 36
    60 seconds
    Q. Which of the following would be an example of paracrine signaling in animals?
    answer choices
    neurotransmitter acetylcholine
    hormone epinephrine
    neurotransmitter norepinephrine
    growth factor
  • Question 37
    60 seconds
    Q. What determines whether a cell is a target cell for a particular signal molecule?
    answer choices
    phosphorylation cascade
    cAMP
    signal receptors
    phosphatase
  • Question 38
    60 seconds
    Q. What determines whether a signal molecule binds on the surface or enters the cell?
    answer choices
    size
    polarity
    ability to cross the membrane
    all of these are correct
  • Question 39
    30 seconds
    Q. What is a benefit of signal transduction pathways?
    answer choices
    they prevent cells from communicating with each other
    they help cells to perform hydrolysis
    they lower activation energy required for metabolic reactions
    they enable cells to amplify a message from a signal molecule
  • Question 40
    60 seconds
    Q. Which of the following converts cAMP to AMP?
    answer choices
    phosphodiesterase
    protein phosphatase
    GTPase
    adenylyl cyclase
  • Question 41
    30 seconds
    Q. Local signalling between a signal releasing cell and neighboring cells is called
    answer choices
    hormonal
    endocrine
    synaptic
    paracrine
  • Question 42
    30 seconds
    Q. A small signal molecule that specifically binds to a different, larger molecule is called a
    answer choices
    ligand
    substrate
    kinase
    receptor
  • Question 43
    30 seconds
    Q. What are the properties of a signal molecule that is most likely to bind to a receptor that is on the outside of the cell membrane?
    answer choices
    small, nonpolar, hydrophobic
    large, polar, hydrophilic
    small, polar, hydrophilic
    large, nonpolar, hydrophobic
  • Question 44
    30 seconds
    Q. Which of the following is a type of signal molecule that can pass through the lipid bilayer and bind to a receptor within the cytoplasm?
    answer choices
    protein
    ion
    steroid
    water
  • Question 45
    30 seconds
    Q. Which of the following describes a transcription factor?
    answer choices
    It is a protein that can be activated by a signal and then cause the transcription of DNA to mRNA
    It is a lipid that can diffuse directly through the plasma membrane and bind to a cytoplasmic receptor
    It is a hydrophobic signal molecule that binds to a receptor on the external side of the cell membrane
    It is a protein that determines whether or not a ribosome binds to the endoplasmic reticulum
  • Question 46
    30 seconds
    Q. Which of the following is a protein that can hold several other relay proteins as it binds to an activated membrane receptor?
    answer choices
    transcription factor
    kinase
    phosphatase
    scaffold
  • Question 47
    30 seconds
    Q. Receptor tyrosine kinase is activated by
    answer choices
    dimerization
    phosphorylation by 6 ATP
    binding of 2 signal molecules
    all of these are correct
  • Question 48
    30 seconds
    Q. Binding of a signal molecule to which type of receptor leads to a change in the concentration of ions on opposite sides of the plasma membrane?
    answer choices
    receptor tyrosine kinase
    g-protein linked receptor
    ligand-gated ion channel
    second messenger
  • Question 49
    30 seconds
    Q. Which of the following is the best evidence that cell communication evolved early in the history of living things?
    answer choices
    they have receptors on the external surface of the cell membrane
    they have receptors in the cytoplasm of cells
    they can travel long distances
    they are found in primitive cells
  • Question 50
    30 seconds
    Q. What does a cell require to respond to a certain signal molecule?
    answer choices
    receptor for the signal
    scaffold protein
    inactive enzyme
    phosphorylation cascaed
  • Question 51
    30 seconds
    Q. Why did Sutherland's epinephrine experiment only work with intact liver cells?
    answer choices
    the intact cells contained a second messenger
    the intact cells contained more glycogen
    the intact cells had fewer receptors for epinephrine
    the intact cells contain more calcium ions
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