Alexander the Great
Rise of Macedonia
Northernmost section of the Greek peninsula
Still governed by kings while most of Greece was either oligarchical or democratic
Macedonians were influenced by Greek culture despite holding different customs
Phillip of Macedonia
The Macedonian kingdom spread across the North of the Greek peninsula
Philip, King of Macedonia, gained power after his brother the former king died in battle in 359 BCE.
Used phalanxes, but armed with sarissas (18 foot pikes) much bigger than the Greek spears
Trained to change direction seamlessly so not to lose formation
How did Philip become king of Macedonia?
Phillip Conquers Greece
Philip and his son, Alexander, went to war with Greece after diplomacy failed.
Together they helped defeat the Greek army, allowing Philip to conquer all of Greece
Philip allowed the individual city-states to keep their local governments if you supported his planned invasion of Persia.
However, Philip died.
Why did Philip allow the city-states to keep their local governments?
After his father’s death, Philip’s 20 year old son, Alexander, gained the throne
He was a military leader who was filled with dreams of glory.
Studied under the great philosopher Aristotle
Who did Alexander study under when he was young?
Alexander did not allow City-States to regain their independence.
To discourage further revolts, he burned the city of Thebes to the ground
Alexander took 30,000 foot soldiers and 5,500 calvary soldiers (soldiers on horseback) east into Asia
Alexander gained loyalty in his army by personally leading them into battle
What action did Alexander take in order to stop revolts?
Alexander’s goal invading Asia was to free city-states from Persian control.
He freed Ionia and Egypt, which helped him to march to Persia and defeat the Persian King
Founded the city of Alexandria in Egypt
Alexander’s ultimate goal was world conquest
After conquering Persia, Alexander marched his army into Afghanistan and India,
He built a vast empire in only 11 years, causing the nickname Alexander the Great
After his last major battle, Alexander’s army mutinied - they wanted to return home
On the march back towards Greece, Alexander died of a fever at 33 years old
His kingdom was divided among his generals
Why did Alexander's army mutiny?
A New World
After his death, his kingdom was divided amongst his generals.
As Alexander conquered he spread Greek culture with mixed with other lands to form Hellenistic culture.
Hellenistic means Greek-like
Hellenistic culture spread all the way to India and impacted the world for years to come
What does Hellenistic mean?