6 days ago by
Instructor-led session
Live lessonStart a live lesson
Asynchronous learning
AssignAssign homework
24 slides PreviewShow answers
  • Slide 1
    Report an issue


    World History

  • Question 2
    180 seconds
    Report an issue

    What comes to mind when you hear the word "Enlightenment"?

  • Slide 3
    Report an issue

    Lesson Objectives

    • Explain the ideas of Hobbes, Locke, Voltaire, Montesquieu, and Rosseau.

    • Describe the five concepts of Enlightenment

    • Describe how Enlightenment ideas spread throughout Europe

    • Explain the legacy of the Enlightenment

  • Slide 4
    Report an issue


    • Also known as "The Age of Reason" it is an intellectual movement that reached its height in the mid-1700s.

    • Its promoters, the Philosophes from Paris, believed that reason could be applied to all aspects of life which shows the power of individuals to solve problems.

  • Slide 5
    Report an issue

    Views on Government

    • Thomas Hobbes - believes that people are selfish so a strong government is needed

    • John Locke - all people are born free, and equal and the government should protect these natural rights

  • Slide 6
    Report an issue

    Five Concepts of the Enlightenment

    • Reason - truth could be discovered through reason or logical thinking (rationalism)

    • Nature - humans are naturally good and reasonable as their rights cannot be taken away by any government

    • Happiness - promotion of well-being on earth

    • Progress - society and humankind could improve

    • Liberty - people should have the protection of the law

  • Slide 7
    Report an issue


    • Used satire against his opponents: clergy, the aristocracy, and the government

    • He fought for tolerance, reason, freedom of religion, and freedom of speech.

    • He believed that humanity's worst enemies are intolerance, prejudice, and superstition.

    • "I do not agree with a word you say but will defend to the death your right to say it." - Voltaire

  • Slide 8
    Report an issue

    Baron de Montesquieu

    • He promoted the call for separation of powers to keep any individual or group from gaining total control of the government.

    • "Power should be a check to power."

    • Executive - carrying of law

    • Legislative - making the law

    • Judiciary - interpret the law

  • Slide 9
    Report an issue

    Cesare Bonesana Beccaria

    • Wrote extensively about people's civil rights as he believed that laws were made to preserve social order

    • He criticized common abuses of justice such as irregular proceedings and cruel punishments.

    • He argues that the accused should receive a speedy trial and no torture should be used as capital punishment should be abolished.

  • Slide 10
    Report an issue

    Jean Jacques Rosseau

    • Argued that good government is important in keeping the general will of the society

    • In his version of the Social Contract people give up some of their rights for the common good and if the government fails to preserve the general will, the people would have the right to overthrow their own government

    • "Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains. - Rosseau

  • Question 11
    30 seconds
    Report an issue

    Do you think the philosophes were optimistic about the future of humankind?

    no correct answer



  • Slide 12
    Report an issue

    Spread of Enlightenment Ideas

    While any forms of criticism to the Catholic Church and the government were prohibited, the views of the French Philosophes spread throughout Europe with the help of books, magazines, and word of mouth.

    Salons became a popular venue where philosophers, writers, artists, scientists, and other intellectual met to discuss ideas.

  • Slide 13
    Report an issue


    • Denis Diderot created a large set of books called Encyclopedia containing articles and essays contributed by many Philosophes.

    • Through Diderot's work, Enlightenment ideas educated people all over Europe through newspapers, pamphlets, and even political songs.

  • Question 14
    45 seconds
    Report an issue

    Why do you think Enlightenment ideas spread so readily?

    answer choices

    improved communication

    widespread appeal

    supported by the Church

    promoted by the monarchs

  • Slide 15
    Report an issue

    New artistic styles

    • Neo-classical - inspired by new interpretations about the classical world and replaced the Baroque (elegant style)

    • Classical music - Franz Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and Ludwig van Beethoven.

    • European authors began writing novels, which are lengthy works of prose fiction.

  • Slide 16
    Report an issue


    • Although philosophes challenged many assumptions about government and society, they often took traditional view toward women.

    • Rosseau - girl's education should mainly teach her how to be a helpful wife and mother.

    • Mary Astell - A Serious Proposal to Ladies

    • Mary Wollstonecraft - A Vindication of the Rights of Woman

  • Slide 17
    Report an issue


    • Many enlightenment thinkers believed that the best form of government is monarchy but they should be "enlightened despots"

    • Frederick the Great of Prussia

    • Joseph II of Austria

    • Catherine the Great of Russia

    • The trending idea was that monarchs exists to serve the state and support citizens.

  • Slide 18
    Report an issue

    Legacy of the Enlightenment

    Thinkers of the period challenged long-held ideas about society: divine right of monarchs, union of church and state, and unequal social classes.

    While it only influence the affluent members of the society, the period still promoted: Belief in Progress, Secular Outlook, and Importance of the Individual.

  • Slide 19
    Report an issue


  • Question 20
    30 seconds
    Report an issue

    Which statement would Thomas Hobbes agree?

    answer choices

    An absolute monarch can best guarantee law and order.

    An absolute monarch rules with the consent of his people.

    Individuals have the most freedom under an absolute monarch.

    People are basically good, and an absolute monarch protects them.

  • Question 21
    30 seconds
    Report an issue

    Which of the following is an ideal promoted by 18th-century French intellectuals?

    answer choices

    The government of a nation should be led by a tyrant.

    The actions of an individual should be based on reason.

    The beliefs of a person should be based on superstition.

    The conclusions of a person should be based on assumption.

  • Question 22
    30 seconds
    Report an issue

    Why did Catholic Church officials dislike Diderot's "Encylopedia"?

    answer choices

    They believed that the articles unfairly criticized the Church and its influence.

    The encyclopedia promoted promoted Protestant ideals and the Church feared losing support.

    They wanted more articles written about the Catholic Church instead of government.

    The encyclopedia rivaled their collection of church history being made available to the public.

  • Question 23
    60 seconds
    Report an issue

    Enlightened despots like _____ was willing to institute reforms as long as the reforms did not affect his/her power.

    Frederick the Great
    Catherine the Great
    Joseph II
  • Question 24
    30 seconds
    Report an issue

    How did Enlightenment philosophers view the status of women in European society?

    answer choices

    They wanted women to remain in their traditional roles as housekeepers.

    They believed the equality that they promoted should be extended to women.

    They believed that women should attend universities to learn how to be respectable.

    They wanted women to obtain a practical education to prepare them for employment.

Report an issue
Why show ads?
Report Ad
Enter Code