What comes to mind when you hear the word "Enlightenment"?
Explain the ideas of Hobbes, Locke, Voltaire, Montesquieu, and Rosseau.
Describe the five concepts of Enlightenment
Describe how Enlightenment ideas spread throughout Europe
Explain the legacy of the Enlightenment
Also known as "The Age of Reason" it is an intellectual movement that reached its height in the mid-1700s.
Its promoters, the Philosophes from Paris, believed that reason could be applied to all aspects of life which shows the power of individuals to solve problems.
Views on Government
Thomas Hobbes - believes that people are selfish so a strong government is needed
John Locke - all people are born free, and equal and the government should protect these natural rights
Five Concepts of the Enlightenment
Reason - truth could be discovered through reason or logical thinking (rationalism)
Nature - humans are naturally good and reasonable as their rights cannot be taken away by any government
Happiness - promotion of well-being on earth
Progress - society and humankind could improve
Liberty - people should have the protection of the law
Used satire against his opponents: clergy, the aristocracy, and the government
He fought for tolerance, reason, freedom of religion, and freedom of speech.
He believed that humanity's worst enemies are intolerance, prejudice, and superstition.
"I do not agree with a word you say but will defend to the death your right to say it." - Voltaire
Baron de Montesquieu
He promoted the call for separation of powers to keep any individual or group from gaining total control of the government.
"Power should be a check to power."
Executive - carrying of law
Legislative - making the law
Judiciary - interpret the law
Cesare Bonesana Beccaria
Wrote extensively about people's civil rights as he believed that laws were made to preserve social order
He criticized common abuses of justice such as irregular proceedings and cruel punishments.
He argues that the accused should receive a speedy trial and no torture should be used as capital punishment should be abolished.
Jean Jacques Rosseau
Argued that good government is important in keeping the general will of the society
In his version of the Social Contract people give up some of their rights for the common good and if the government fails to preserve the general will, the people would have the right to overthrow their own government
"Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains. - Rosseau
Do you think the philosophes were optimistic about the future of humankind?
Spread of Enlightenment Ideas
While any forms of criticism to the Catholic Church and the government were prohibited, the views of the French Philosophes spread throughout Europe with the help of books, magazines, and word of mouth.
Salons became a popular venue where philosophers, writers, artists, scientists, and other intellectual met to discuss ideas.
Denis Diderot created a large set of books called Encyclopedia containing articles and essays contributed by many Philosophes.
Through Diderot's work, Enlightenment ideas educated people all over Europe through newspapers, pamphlets, and even political songs.
Why do you think Enlightenment ideas spread so readily?
New artistic styles
Neo-classical - inspired by new interpretations about the classical world and replaced the Baroque (elegant style)
Classical music - Franz Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and Ludwig van Beethoven.
European authors began writing novels, which are lengthy works of prose fiction.
Although philosophes challenged many assumptions about government and society, they often took traditional view toward women.
Rosseau - girl's education should mainly teach her how to be a helpful wife and mother.
Mary Astell - A Serious Proposal to Ladies
Mary Wollstonecraft - A Vindication of the Rights of Woman
Many enlightenment thinkers believed that the best form of government is monarchy but they should be "enlightened despots"
Frederick the Great of Prussia
Joseph II of Austria
Catherine the Great of Russia
The trending idea was that monarchs exists to serve the state and support citizens.
Legacy of the Enlightenment
Thinkers of the period challenged long-held ideas about society: divine right of monarchs, union of church and state, and unequal social classes.
While it only influence the affluent members of the society, the period still promoted: Belief in Progress, Secular Outlook, and Importance of the Individual.
Which statement would Thomas Hobbes agree?
Which of the following is an ideal promoted by 18th-century French intellectuals?
Why did Catholic Church officials dislike Diderot's "Encylopedia"?
Enlightened despots like _____ was willing to institute reforms as long as the reforms did not affect his/her power.
How did Enlightenment philosophers view the status of women in European society?